Of course ... Heart Surgeons have seen many hearts.
president of the senate
Constitutional amendments must be ratified by the votes of 3/4 of the State Legislatures. There is no requirement for a plebiscite, or vote of the people. Each State Legislature can, if it chooses, base its decision on a popular vote, but I'm not aware that any do.
Chief of Staff
The US Constitution.
State judges adhere to the laws and principles of their state's constitution, as well as most of the US Constitution, with the exception of amendments that have not yet been incorporated. Federal judges follow the US Constitution.
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Brown v. board of education