Chemistry

This category encompasses all questions about the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.

Asked in Science, Chemistry, Periodic Table

What is the fourth element of the periodic table of elements?

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Beryllium (Be) See the Web Links and the Related Questions for more information.
Asked in Science, Chemistry, Acids and Bases

What are some examples of chemical and physical changes?

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Physical Changes Change of state (such as from solid to liquid or from gas to liquid) Specific examples of state change include water freezing, alcohol evaporating and dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) subliming Absorption of water into a towel Crumpling a piece of paper Pulling copper into a thin wire - a change of shape, but not a change of composition Cutting a material such as wood Tearing a piece of tin foil Breaking glass Deflating a basketball Mixing different solids (such as solid sulfur and iron filings) Inflating a volleyball Cloud forming in the sky Chemical changes Burning a log of wood Mixing an acid with a base, producing water and a salt. Photosynthesis - a process in which carbon dioxide and water are changed into sugars by plants. Cracking heavy hydrocarbons to create lighter hydrocarbons (part of the process of refining oil). Cooking examples: popcorn, cake, pancakes, and eggs Oxidation examples: rust or tarnishing Combustion Mixing chemicals Rotting of fruit Cooking rice Explosion of fireworks Tarnishing silver Lighting a match Chewing/digesting food Rusting nail Burning gas in a stove Oxidizing food for energy Roasting a marshmallow Adding food coloring to icing Frying an egg Burning a magnesium strip The following can indicate that a chemical change took place, although this evidence is not conclusive: Change of color (for example, silver to reddish-brown when iron rusts) Change in temperature or energy, such as the production (exothermic) or loss (endothermic) of heat Change of form (for example, burning paper) Light, heat, or sound is given off Formation of gases, often appearing as bubbles Formation of precipitate (insoluble particles) The decomposition of organic matter (for example, rotting food)
Asked in Chemistry, Periodic Table, Atoms and Atomic Structure

What type of element is a protactinium?

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I'm not too bad at chemistry, but one thing I can't wrap my head around is how perfect the periodic table is. How is it that each element that we know is only one more proton than the last? How come it goes in PERFECT order instead of having a few elements with protons not perfectly linear to the periodic table?
Asked in Chemistry, Atoms and Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonding

How do you determine if a molecule is polar or non-polar?

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Polar Bonds and Molecular Shape A polar molecule is a molecule that has a net dipole moment due to its having unsymmetrical polar bonds. There are two factors that go into determining if a molecule is polar or not. To determine if a molecule (or ion) is polar or non-polar, you must determine both factors. The polarity of the individual bonds in the molecule. The shape or geometry of the molecule. First, to determine if a given individual bond is polar, you need to know the electronegativity of the two atoms involved in that bond. To find the electronegativities of all the elements, look at the periodic table (follow the link below this answer under Web Links). If the electronegativity of the two atoms has a difference of 0.3 or less, then the bond is non-polar. If the electronegativity difference is greater that 0.3 but less than 1.7, then the bond is polar. If the two values have a difference greater than 1.7, then the bond is ionic, which is just very very polar. Once you know which bonds in the molecule are polar and which are non-polar, you must use the shape of the molecule. You need the shape because two polar bonds, if oriented correctly can cancel each other out (like two equally strong people pulling in opposite directions on a rope -- nobody moves). The three possible outcomes: If all bonds are non-polar, then the whole molecule is non-polar regardless of its shape. If there is symmetry in the molecule so that the polarity of the bonds cancels out, then the molecule is non-polar. A common example of this is carbon dioxide, or CO2. The molecule is linear, and its Lewis dot structure is like this: O=C=O (this doesn't include two sets of lone pairs on each oxygen). The carbon-oxygen bond is a polar bond, but because they are exactly opposed to each other, the molecule is overall non-polar. Another example of this is CCl4, where each carbon-chlorine bond is polar, but the molecule is non-polar. Here, how they cancel out isn't as obvious, but they do. CCl4 is a tetrahedral molecule, and the 4 C-Cl polar bonds cancel each other out. If there are polar bonds but there is no symmetry such that they cancel each other out, the overall molecule is polar. Water is a typical example of this. The two O-H bonds are oriented in a V-shape, and so the don't cancel out. Similarly, CH3Cl is also polar. It is the same shape as CCl4 (see above), but now it doesn't have the same symmetry because there is only one C-Cl bond and the bonds don't cancel out anymore.
Asked in Math and Arithmetic, Chemistry, Statistics, Percentages, Fractions, and Decimal Values

What is the percent error formula?

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Percent Error is the difference between the true value and the estimate divided by the true value and the result is multiplied by 100 to make it a percentage. The percent error obviously can be positive or negative; however, some prefer taking the absolute value of the difference. The formula is the absolute value of the experimental value (minus) the theoretical value divided by theoretical value times 100. % error = (|Your Result - Accepted Value| / Accepted Value) x 100
Asked in Chemistry, Gold and Precious Metals

What is the formula of white gold?

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Well,white gold never existed, but any industry to create the best white gold formula alloys is the one go to make big money. Because the consumer is looking for the best precious metal alloys; any person that has his or her own real pure solid white gold formula alloys, is not in their best interest to specify the formula to any other person. In this world we have more that 181 precious metals to combine to produce your own white gold formula; you only make sure when you find the formula that pass the acid,and magnet test, you can make jewelry to not loose the white color for life. Yellow gold with Rhodium is not real pure color white gold. You do not need yellow gold to create the karat 10k threw 21k to past the acid and magnet test.With all the problem to create yellow gold with Rhodium the jewelry industry, lied to the consumers that it is white gold when its not. Now we have to guaranty the pure solid white gold formula alloys for life time, or money back guaranty! Think good Wake Up. Real pure solid white gold formula alloys precious metals is the best to create white gold, and that it is not yellow gold alloys with Rhodium. Sincerely, see web page. Living Life Enterprises Presents. For the best interest to the consumers.
Asked in Science, Chemistry

10 examples of physical change and chemical change?

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Physical Change: *Milo dissolves into hot milk *A plate is dropped and shatters *Grass in mowed *Metal Knife is sharpened *Breakfast Cereal goes soggy Chemical Change: *Wood burns to form black charcoal * A green tomato ripens and turns red * Fireworks explode to form colourful light and loud sounds * Vegetables scraps in the compost bin decompose to form rich soil * An egg is cooked to become a white and yellow solid
Asked in Biology, Physics, Chemistry

Which science is the most complex chemistry or biology or physics?

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Chemistry is an important branch of Science and it discusses the reactions of chemical elements in human body. Learning Chemistry needs skills like attention, hard work and determination which an online Chemistry tutor inculcates in a student. For me science is basic and I truly appreciate science so I would state that the trouble level is about the equivalent in spite of the fact that science utilizes a considerable amount of maths and you have to comprehend ideas so as to utilize them while science is content substantial. having said that, science mark plans are exceptionally particular with watchwords and granting marks...
Asked in Chemistry, Law & Legal Issues

What gas law applies to aerosol cans being stored in a cool place?

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Don't really know if this is what your asking but P1/T1= P2/T2 should show how the pressure varies with temperature (V is left out because it's constant since the gas is trapped in an aerosol can). As the temperature rises the pressure rises and if it gets too high then the can explodes, which is why it should be stored in a cool place. There's also PV=nRT might be kind of hard to find moles (n) though. the ideal gas law will provide a rough estimate for the P V T properties of the vapor in the cans. ________________________________________________ Edit by: Bipolarattorney 08/17/12 From a legal perspective, in the United States, the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) would govern the requirement to safely/properly store hazardous materials. The Code of Federal Regulations, which would apply, is 29 CFR 1910.
Asked in Chemistry, Civil Engineering, Construction, Metallurgy

What does Fe500 steel mean?

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The abbreviation Fe stands for Ferrous material ie iron from which the reinforcement steel bars are manufactured. The reinforcement steel bars used in RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) are designated as Fe415 or Fe500 depending on their Yield Strength. (The numbers 415 and 500 tell about this Yield Strength in N/mm2 the bars are designed and manufactured to have.) As per IS : 1786 Yield Stress (also known as 0.2% proof stress) of Fe 500 is 500 N/mm2. So, Fe500 steel means the reinforcement steel rods (or bars) that can safely withstand an Yield Stress of 500 N/mm2.
Asked in Chemistry, Philippines

Who are some famous Filipino chemists and what are their contributions to the field of chemistry?

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Filipino Chemists and their contributions Julian Banzon - experimented with the production of ethyl ester fuels from sugarcane and coconut and invented a means of extracting residual coconut oil by a chemical process rather than a physical process. A pioneer for alternative fuels ROM the 1930's and 40's. Francisco Quisumbing - invented Quink ink (currently used in Parker Pens) which is a quick drying ink that prevents the ink from clogging the pen. Ramon Barba - created crop flowering techniques using a potassium nitrate spray. Due to his discoveries in tropical tree physiology, the Philippines is the leading exporter of mangoes and mango products. Francisco Santos - studied the nutritive values and chemical composition of local foods from the Philippines. His data was used to help detect and solve problems with Filipino diets. Rolando De La Cruz - inventor of an anti-cancer skin cream. Anacleto Del Rosario - Winner of first prize at the World Fair in Paris in 1881 for for producing a pure alcohol from tuba of a nipa palm. His research also led to the process of extracting castor oil from a native plant called palma christi. Alfredo Santos - isolation and elucidation of biochemicals (the phaeantharine and other alkaloids) from Philippine medical plants. Eduardo San Juan - worked on the team that invented and launched the Lunar Rover (Moon Bugg) Daniel Dingel - possible invention of a water-powered car Benjamin Almeda - designed a cutting edge food-processing machine More Filipino Scientists that have contributed to the field of chemistry: Lourdes J. Cruz Dr. Beatrice Guevara Dr. Evelyn Mae T. Mendoza Dr. Elma C. Llaguno Lani Rose Mateo Richard Sucgang Angel Arguelles Julian Bazon Luz Oliveros-Belardo Alfredo Santos
Asked in Science, Physics, Chemistry, Chemical Bonding

Why does water have a high and specific heat capacity?

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First, we need to know a little bit about water. Water is a polar molecule because oxygen bears partial negative charge and hydrogen bears partial positive charge. This results in extensive hydrogen bonding in water molecules between slightly negative oxygens and slightly positive hydrogens. Second, we need to remember that temperature is another way of saying the average kinetic energy of particles - the higher the temperature, the faster they move, in the case of gases and liquids, or vibrate, in the case of solids. Third, heat capacity is the ability of matter to absorb thermal energy. One calorie is defined as the amount required to heat a gram of water one degree Centigrade. That same calorie will heat a gram of gold 33 degrees. Water's specific heat is defined as 1. The specific heat of gold is therefore .03. Water has a high specific heat because there are quite a few ways water can store heat. 1. Moving along three axes 2. Rotating the "V" shaped molecule in three different directions 3. Hydrogen atoms vibrating back and forth like a tuning fork 4. Hydrogen atoms vibrating up and down along their H-O axis. Finally, the heat of fusion of water is 80 calories per gram, and the heat of vaporization for water is 540 calories. So ice can absorb 80 times as much heat while melting as the same mass of water. Water absorbs 540 times as much heat while turning into water vapor as the same mass of water absorbs. Both phase changes occur at constant temperature, 0 Centigrade and 100 Centigrade respectively. Look up phase change graph for water to see the interesting line.
Asked in Chemistry, Nuclear Physics

What is the definition for Radioactive Element?

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A radioactive element is an element with an unstable nucleus, which radiates alpha, beta or gamma radiation and gets converted to a stable element
Asked in Chemistry, Elements and Compounds

How will you justify water is a compound?

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See related questions. Water is made up of elements Hydrogen and Oxygen with the chemical formula: H2O. It can easily be disassociated with electrolysis into the elements Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2), and reformed with combustion. It has aspects of both covalent and ionic bonds. It is generally considered neutral, but can be a proton donor to act as a weak acid. H2O --> HO- + H+. It can also act as a weak base, being a proton acceptor. H2O + H+ --> H3O+.
Asked in Cleaning, Chemistry, Manicures and Pedicures

How do you remove nail polish stains from your carpet?

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I'm a material researcher and I've reviewed this extensive answer. There are many inaccuracies and bad advice here, along with extremely effective and absolutely clear recommendations that should work very well. Nail polish is, for practical intents and purposes, a form of nitrocellulose lacquer. Nitrocellulose, the first plastic ever invented, is an excellent coating material for human cuticle, and that's why it's used in nail polish. But if it spills and gets on something unintended, it can make a difficult stain. To effectively remove any stain, a good approach is to know what the chemical composition of the stain is, and then use a physical or chemical strategy tailored to that chemical, while being mindful of avoiding damage to the item being cleaned. Applying this strategy to nail polish leads directly and logically to nail polish remover (acetone), which happens to be an excellent solvent for nitrocellulose. Acetone will indeed remove most any nail polish from most anything. Of course, acetone is such a powerful solvent that it can also dissolve the item you're trying to clean. For this reason, a trial on a small, inconspicuous area of the stain is essential. Some answerers did recommend nail polish remover, while others recommended other solvents that may work with nail polish. Still others mixed the nail polish remover with water or other reasonable things, partly to dilute the effect of the acetone. I commend them all: they get a gold star! If acetone won't work out, then one can use physical or physico-chemical means, such as scrubbing and detergents. Here, the goal will be to break the film formed by the nitrocellulose, thereby admitting water and floating chips of the nail polish away from the stained fabric. Some people recommended scrubbing with brush, pumice, and so forth, possibly with some acetone or detergent. They also get a gold star! More info about nail-polish remover To remove nail polish from carpets, nail polish remover will work but you need to use caution because it can also remove dye from your carpet or upholstery. You can try and bleach your carpet, but only if you have a white carpet. Note: Be aware when mixing chemicals or cleaners; the potential of causing toxic fumes can be harmful. On a light-colored carpet it might not be noticeable but on darker colors, test first. Otherwise, a little nail polish will be the least of your worries. How about having to replace a whole roomful of carpet or trying to match the carpet color to dye one patch? Always test any kind of chemical stain remover/cleaner in an out-of-the-way place like a corner. Under a cushion might be a good spot for upholstery. Non-acetone polish remover is probably safer, but there are no guarantees. Nail polish remover may be harmful to your carpet or fabric. Here is more advice from contributors: Do not use nail polish remover unless you read the label. It is harmful to some different types of carpets and fabrics. I don't know if this will work for "old" stains, but for new ones: Use a lot of water, keep the stain wet! Use about 15-20 squirts of hair spray and 3-5 splashes of rubbing alcohol. Scrub gently with a small scrub brush. Blot with paper towels. Repeat as necessary. Don't forget to keep pouring water during the process. Get the stain wet. (will need lots of water). Spray with hairspray about 15 times. Drizzle with nail polish remover. Scrub with a toothbrush for 2-3 min.. Repeat process 3-4 times. Then vacuum over for about 5 min.. And repeat process until wanted/needed results. (Depending on type of hairspray, spraying the stain with it may make stain worse. Make sure your hairspray is NOT extreme hold or anything that's strong.) I tried shaving cream, nail polish remover, hair spray, Windex, rubbing alcohol, and water. It sort of came out. I had three streaks of pink nail polish splattered all over the carpet. i pretty much used everything on this site- Windex, nail polish remover, shaving cream, hairspray and lots of water. I feel sick from the fumes and there is still a little left but i think the key is persistence - continue to scrub and scrub and add stuff and most should come out. it's a lot of work and it sucks. in the future i think i will paint my nails outside! One tablespoon of ammonia and 1/4 cup hydrogen peroxide. I have very light silver gray carpet and bright red polish. I called the carpet maker and they said to use nail polish remover. It worked! Then I cleaned the spot with a little carpet cleaner. Good as new. Between everything everyone advised, I got the nail polish out. I used nail polish remover, hydrogen peroxide, carpet cleaner, water and hair spray and it got it out! I had an old nail polish stain on the carpet. I tried to remove it with nail polish remover and it did not come out at all. I thought that it was hopeless to get out so I left it there. I decided to look online and see if I could find a better solution. I used water, hair spray and rubbing alcohol and it worked on an old stain! Do not use bleach. A bleach stain leeches the dye out of the carpet. After that all you will be able to do is replace the carpet or cover it with a rug. Nail Polish Remover, Water, Hairspray, Hydrogen Peroxide, Carpet Stain Cleaner, Rubbing Alcohol. I used Spot Remover from Stanley Steamer and a lot of rubbing and scrubbing and the spot came out. Brake fluid cleaner. Works in no time. I spilled dark purple nail polish on our brand new beige carpet. The lady at the local hardware store recommended "Goof Off." It took quite a bit of the stain out. From there I used ammonia to get the rest up. The Goof Off worked great to get the polish off the tile & grout, too. I spilled a whole bottle of black nail polish on a white rug. Use Oxyclean! It works. I used HOT WATER, NAIL VARNISH REMOVER, HAIR REMOVING CREAM, THEN SOAP POWDER IN THAT ORDER, then I scrubbed like a maniac with a dish scrubber, you know the ones with one rough side? For some reason if you don't use it in order it doesn't work! I just used nail polish remover and water and it came out. You can remove nail polish stain of a fabric, carpets, and counter tops using Motsenbocker's Lift Off #3. We tried it on our quilt an it made the nail polish stain just disappear, like magic! You can purchase it at any hardware store. We purchased it at The Home Depot for about $6.00. It also removes permanent ink and marker stains. I know this sounds crazy but using carburetor and choke cleaner (found at any auto parts store) did the trick for us. My boyfriend the "miracle worker" used this after I spilled bright pink polish over beige carpet. The only bad thing was the smell was pretty strong from the cleaner and it took a few days to go away, but it was amazing how it works. My stain wasn't old, i spilled blue nail polish on my tan carpet, and I poured water on it, I kept it wet, then scrubbed, and dabbed, tried not to push it more into the carpet, then then, i poured more water on it, and then i poured nail polish remover on it, scrubbed and dabbed it, then hair spray! put hair spay on it, and scrubbed, did that for about 15 min, and it came out. Water and hydrogen peroxide. My arm now hurts from scrubbing, but it's gone. Water, hair spray and nail varnish remover worked after about 15 minutes scrubbing. A little tip, use a stiff nail brush to scrub with, seemed to lift it a lot faster. Just use some hydrogen peroxide that's the most safe and it works well, it's also usually available at home. I used it on a day old stain of hot pink nail polish and it worked fine. I scrubbed it with a brush. Be careful not to tear your carpet up to much. And to make sure the hydrogen peroxide could not hurt my carpet I suck it up with a Bissell carpet cleaner. hydrogen peroxide and small amounts of nail polish remover works great. and if not then get really hot water pour and lightly scrub! hope u get the stain out! it worked for me I just started with some nail polish remover and then used Resolve for Pet Stains with water...IT CAME OUT IN 5 MINUTES!! I splattered nail polish on my carpet and I found that torpensol works really well. Put it on a wet cloth, don't put it right on the carpet because it will sink all the way through. I'm sure that is not good for the carpet. It took a lot of scrubbing and your house will smell for a while but at least it all came out. After I stopped crying about spilling a half a bottle of red nail polish on my new beige, shag carpet, this is what I did: I read the suggestions here and then proceeded to pour a large amount of rubbing alcohol all over the stain and then soaked it with hairspray. I used washcloths and kept rubbing the stain and in a matter of a few minutes the stain lifted. I washed it with a little soap and water. It's still wet, but the stain appears to be gone. The good part is that alcohol and hair spray dry very quickly, unlike tons of soap and water. Hair spray is the miracle stain remover...it also removes ball point pen from tons of things!! According to the author of Talking Dirty with the Queen of Clean, Linda Cobb, try the above mentioned methods and precautions with non-oily nail polish remover. If this does not work, buy straight acetone at a beauty supply house, pretest, and apply with an eye dropper or non-silver spoon, blotting immediately after every application. She adds that once the polish is removed, follow with Spot Shot Carpet Stain Remover (Apply as directed). If some polish still remains, apply hydrogen peroxide to lighten. After freaking out that i had just spilled a very large amount of bright neon purple polish on my parents off white carpets (pretty big deal considering they just allowed me to move back in and pay for me to finish my degree), i ran for the Resolve carpet cleaner which did very little, i tried acetone-free nail polish remover, which worked a bit better, the combination of the two and a good scrub brush pulled the stain almost entirely out (i blotted the stain occasionally with paper towels. Then following the advice from this page i dumped about half a bottle of rubbing alcohol and a large amount of hairspray onto the stain, let set for about 30 seconds and then scrubbed with a hand towel, following with a small amount of soap and water. The stain appears to be gone! hopefully I'll never have to to tell my parents! I tried the whole nail polish remover and water and scrubbing for like a half hour, and the stain went from something barely noticeable, to a huge stain that my parents will totally freak out about! I'm worried now, but then i used oxyclean, and it FINALLY came out. I spilled a streak of dark blue nail polish on my new beige carpet. The stain was a streak and some dots spanning about 2 and a half feet. Window cleaner (with ammonia), hydrogen peroxide, and scrubbing and blotting got the stains out in a short period of time. It's not a miracle fix. There is a little "shadow" if you look at the carpet with an eagle eye and in the right lighting and direction, but it would appear gone to a casual observer. My daughters age 11 and 4 were playing around and broke bright red nail polish on our tan carpets. After much scrubbing and Oxy clean nothing worked. Then I went to Home Depot and bought Motsenbocker's Life Off 4 Acrylic Enamel and Spray Paint Remover. It was the best 4 bucks I ever spent. You just splash this stuff on the stain and let it sit for a minute then you agitate it. Then put paper towels on the stain and put a phone book on top for pressure and for added weight I had my 2 daughters stand on top of the books for that hour (trust me they didn't mind). Came up in an hour. It just soaked up. This stuff is great. I just moved into an awesome apartment with my new boyfriend, and the carpet is a brand new very light tan color. He was at work and I spilled half a bottle of maroon polish right in the middle of the living room. We just moved in about a week ago...lol, so we have just the necessities, carpet cleaner excluded. So I tried alcohol, and hair spray. The stain is gone, and I highly doubt that my new clean freak boyfriend will notice! Aftershave, hot water and oxy power. It really works. I spilled BLACK nail polish in my sister's room (I'm always such a klutz in that room so it was super URGENT for me to get out the polish). So I started out with water and some bath and body soap with a paper towel, it didn't do much but turn it into a gray stain. I came to this site and read quickly through some of the advice. I dabbed the stain with alcohol and more water and soap. And that worked as well. With that it started coming off more and more. So I added hair spray and WOW did it work! And with some added carpet cleaner it was almost like it was never there. It took a while for me to start getting the stain out so it soaked it, but other than that it looks just like new! I spilled several splotches of blue nail polish on a tan rug, so I scrubbed it with water immediately and came to this site. I read through mostly all the answers and scrubbed it with carpet cleaner, more water, lots of nail polish remover, and then more carpet cleaner. It worked like a charm. The carpet is a bit damp now and the fumes made me sick, but it looks good as new. Tip: for me, hydrogen peroxide only made it worse. I used a combination of nail polish remover, water, hairspray and Windex which reduce the color of the stain and made it barely visible to the eye Old Nail Polish - I would try rubbing alcohol, water, and a steel brush. It worked for me after about two minutes. You can't even see it any more I spilled bright quick drying red nail varnish on my cream rug last night. I initially used nail varnish remover and this dissipated the worst of the bright red color. However, I was still left with a large pink area where the red dye had been diluted. I made a paste using Vanish Oxi Action granules (in the pink tub) and covered the area with the paste. I then used Vanish carpet cleaner foam and sat the foam on top. I left it for about 20 minutes, by which time the foam had soaked through and only the residue granules remained. I scraped these off and then hoovered the area. I repeated this five times and the stain was gone. The colored pattern in the carpet remained (i.e. no bleaching effect to be concerned about). Try using nail polish remover and right after that, while its still wet, apply baking soda and a little bit of water. work it in and rinse with warm water. Try using Goof off. If you have a extra piece of carpet left over from when it was installed, take that and put some goof off on it. Gentle rub the spot. What happens when you use the scrap carpet is that it will transfer the same dyes for the scrap to the carpet so when you are done, it won't leave a different discolor spot from where you cleaned it. Be gentle. If you don't have the same carpet scrap to use, use goof off on a clean white cloth. Wet the cloth with water first to help dilute the goof off a little, then put some goof off on it and rub gentle. The water is important so that the strength of the goof off won't rub a discolor spot on your carpet. I'm a painter and I've dealt with many things like this before and it seems to work. Good luck. All you have to do is put hydrogen peroxide and Club soda on the stain. Yes, it can be flavored, but as long as it is bubbly water. I have a light green carpet and spilled bright pink nail varnish on it. I scrubbed hard with water and nail varnish remover at first, but it removed only a small amount of the stain away and it turned purple. I researched more and found that I should scrub it with hairspray and rubbing alcohol. I had no rubbing alcohol but I had plenty of hairspray so I just used that, and it got most of it away so you couldn't notice it at all unless you get really close My 8 year old kicked over a bottle of red nail polish onto her beige bedroom carpeting. She tried to keep it wet and scrubbed with water and a rag while I searched the internet for a solution. This was the first site I came to and the first dozen or so remedies I read were chemicals or a scary combination (potentially dangerous) of chemicals which we don't have in the house. I went to the cupboard and found a bottle of Revive by EcoSense - it is actually a wrinkle relaxer - but made from melaleuca oil. We sprayed it on and scrubbed with tooth brushes, then vacuumed up the "foam" as we went. It instantly started to remove the polish. In places where the polish had become more dry we scrubbed longer, but the stain is gone. Also didn't have to worry about potentially toxic fumes. After spilling hot pink nail polish on a white bedspread, I tried everything on this site and nothing worked. A friend and I then tried nail polish remover and scrubbed with a pumice stone and the stain came out in 2 minutes. Very relieved! I used a little nail polish remover... a lot of water... and lots of mean green and scraped it with a tooth brush. I spilled a lot of pink nail polish on a new carpet. Read several of these answers and did the following: Put lots of water on the stains - then hairspray then non-acetone polish remover. Scrubbed with a tooth brush. For the first 10-15 minutes it didn't look like I was making much progress. I then added a carpet cleaner "Spot Shot" and scrubbed some more; then more polish remover and "Spot Shot & scrubbing. After about 20 minutes I could see some progress. When about 90% of the stain was gone I gave up - but when I looked at the spot 15 - 20 minutes later, there was NO INDICATION that I had spilled anything. Not even a hint of pink color in my beige carpet.
Asked in Math and Arithmetic, Chemistry

What are negative ligands?

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Any negatively charged species that is able to donate its lone pair to the metal is called a negative ligand. For example, Cl- , Br-, SO4-2, C2O4-2. The name of the ligand will end with O (i.e. sulphate will become sulphato, nitrite will become nitrito etc.)
Asked in Chemistry

Is sperm good for your skin?

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== == First of all, lets assume you mean semen. Sperm are the little swimming guys you see in reproduction videos; semen is the lubricative substance that surrounds them and can exist free of sperm. Yes, it is good for the skin. Semen is not only rich in vitamin "E" but it is a natural lubricant that moisturizes the skin and causes it to glow. * The reported 'salty' taste is from ammonia salts picked up from the urethra, these salts are very effective at de-greasing as well as having anti-bacterial properties. * However, it also has a very distinct odor of musk which may be undesirable. * Just an FYI- skin cream is easily available in stores.
Asked in Chemistry

Is air a mixture or a solution or a compound or an element?

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Air is a mixture of gases (and not a compound), about 78% being nitrogen (an element) , about 21% oxygen (another element), and all other gases present in much lesser amounts. The remaining 1% is made up of argon (0.93%), carbon dioxide (0.039% as of 2010) and other trace gases (0.003%). Water vapor (water in its gaseous state) is also present in the atmosphere in varying amounts, by up to 2%. If you live in Florida in the summer rains, or in parts of England, or in the rain forest, humidity is high, and the air contains a large amount of water vapor. In dry air, as that found in desert regions, there is little water vapor in the air. This mixture is fairly homogeneous near the surface, and the only practical way to separate the individual gases is by cooling them to their condensation temperatures, which are extremely low. One of the easier gases to condense is carbon dioxide, which changes to solid form at about - 78.5 °C and is known as "dry ice." These components exist in air as separate, unreactive, and unbound entities (molecules). If air was a compound, the above mentioned gases would be chemically bonded together in some sort of fixed ratios (like H20), which they're not.
Asked in Chemistry, Science, Sports

Why is science defined as a product and a process?

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This is because science is not just the information presented (the product), but also the way in which that information has been collected (the process). While scientific knowledge should be testable and falsifiable (according to Karl Popper), the way in which such information has been gathered is also important. Science should be unbiased and experiments should be repeatable by different individuals. There are different philosophers who argue on the way science proceeds. (see Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend)
Asked in Physics, Chemistry, Atoms and Atomic Structure

What is the temperature of a lighter flame?

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The temperature of a Bic lighter flame is 1977 C or 3590.6 F.
Asked in Chemistry

What are the names and uses of the various laboratory tools?

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Laboratory Tools and Apparatuses Tools include beakers, microscopes, tweezers, hot plates, lasers, volt meters, test tubes, Erlenmeyer flasks, thermometers, test tube racks, Bunsen burners, crucibles, tripods and more. They are used to measure, observe and gather data for experiments, as well as to safely perform reactions and to heat things. More advanced laboratory equipment includes items such as spectrometers, centrifuges and chromatographs. Of utmost importance are these safety tools: Eye wash: In case materials get into your eyes, use this to rinse them out. Safety shower: In case materials get onto your clothing or body, use this to rinse them off. Tools and their uses: beaker - a liquid-measuring container burette - measures volume of solution clay triangle - a wire frame with porcelain used to support a crucible wire gauze - used to spread heat of a burner flame test tube - used as holder of small amount of solution forceps - holds or pick up small objects graduated cylinder - measures approximate volume of liquids graduated pipette - measures solution volumes condenser - used in distillation crucible - used to heat a small amount of a solid substance at a very high temperature funnel - used to transfer solids and liquids without spilling thermometer - measures temperature balance - measures mass of material pH meter - measures acidity of solutions centrifuge - separates materials of varying density pipette - used to transfer measured substances into another vessel droppers - for addition of liquids, drop by drop glass funnels - for funneling liquids from one container to another, or for filtering when equipped with filter paper. graduated cylinders - for measurement of an amount of liquid. The volume of liquid can be estimated to the nearest 0.1 mL with practice. ring stand (with rings or clamps) - for holding pieces of glassware in place. test tubes - for holding small samples or for containing small-scale reactions test-tube holders - for holding test tubes when tubes should not be touched tongs - similar function to forceps, but are useful for larger items volumetric flasks - to measure precise volumes of liquid or to make precise dilutions. wash bottles - for dispensing small quantities of distilled water. watch glasses - for holding small samples or for covering beakers or evaporating dishes. wire gauze on a ring - supports beakers to be heated by Bunsen burners For more information on these tools, see the Related Questions and the Related Links.
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What is orbital mixing?

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Asked in Chemistry, Acids and Bases, Metal and Alloys

What happens when dilute acids react with chemically active metals?

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What organisms use energy from the sun or stored in chemical compounds to manufacture their own nutrients?

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Asked in Chemistry

Does paper contain carbon?

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