Due to its immense power, hydraulics are used for operating various machinery, vehicles, aircraft, ships and equipment. The data and engineering revolving around hydraulics is so vast, its hard to comprehend.

3,320 Questions
American Cars

How do you put hydraulic oil in a bottle jack?

There should be a screw on the side of the jack--remove and fill until oil runs out of this screw. Make sure that the "ram" is fully retracted into the body of the jack

Mechanical Engineering
Steam Engines

What is honing of cylinder liners?

The honing equipment used has been manufactured by "Chris Marine". The head of the honing device consists of four synchronized stones. For the initial honing diamond stones are used to break up the hardened surface in the scuffed areas. For the main honing very coarse and hard stones are used to produce a very desirable rough surface all over the liner.

The advantage, especially for the 2-stroke engines, is possibility to save the liner after a seizure, scuffing or blow-by or even to eliminate the ovality of the liner. Another advantage is, that it is possible to machine a rough linerwall to obtain a well oiled surface.


What does a hydraulic accumulator do with energy?

A hydraulic accumulator contains a bladder filled with a compressible gas, usually nitrogen. The pressure of the gas in the bladder is known as the pre-charge, and will vary based on the ambient temperature. Hydraulic oil is pumped into the accumulator but outside of the bladder. As the oil is pumped in, the bladder compresses, which exerts a force on the oil. There is usually an pressure transducer in the system which will signal the hydraulic pump to turn off when a certain oil pressure is reached in the accumulator.

A hydraulic accumulator can have several uses. It can be used to store hydraulic pressure for later use. It can be also used as a type of "shock absorber" for hydraulic systems.

Combustion Engines

What is a welding lead?

the welding lead is the cable coming from the welding machine that either feeds the wire and shielding gas (mig) or or provides current to the electrode through the holder


How do you add hydraulic fluid to a hydraulic cylinder jack?

How to add hydraulic jack oil to an hydraulic jack (floor jack or bottle jack).First, don't open the Check Valves!The most common mistake with a floor jack is to open one of the check valves (or their covers) instead of actually finding the fluid reservoir plug. Be sure you have found the filler hole (which can be very tricky to find on an oily old jack -- it's probably a small rubber plug that might even be painted the same color as the rest of your jack, hiding on the housing of the main hydraulic ram, NOT on the base. The screw/bolt heads on the base are the check valves. If you open a check valve, the springs and check balls might come out under pressure, and your jack won't ever work again unless you can find them and put them back in the right places

If your jack needs oil, even after a couple of years, it probably also needs new seals. Adding oil might let you use it a while longer, but you should probably replace the seals (or if it's a cheap Chinese/Taiwanese jack, just get a new jack). American- or Japanese-made jacks are probably worth resealing. Please always use jack stands so when the seals really blow out you don't end up crushed.

You're probably going to just put jack oil in anyway (or maybe you did replace the seals and now you need to put jack oil in), so here's how to do it:

  1. Use Hydraulic Jack Oil (available at auto parts stores). Do not use brake fluid, which will turn the seals into useless cheese.
  2. Be sure you have found the oil reservoir hole, not one of the check valves. Do all the following work with the jack rightside up (and don't store the jack upside down or on its side).
  3. Clean the plug and jack body around the hole. Any debris in the oil can easily cause damage later.
  4. Release the valve/lower the jack (turn the jack handle counterclockwise).
  5. Unscrew or pry out the plug as appropriate. Fill the reservoir. A tiny funnel will probably make this a LOT easier).
    1. Close the valve and raise the jack slowly enough to not blast oil back out the hole. The reservoir level will go down, which is normal, and you shouldn't add oil now.
    2. Slowly lower the jack (again, just don't blast a bunch of oil back out the hole). Air bubbles may come out, causing a few drips of oil to come out too, in which case you should add oil until the reservoir is full, then go back to the previous step until you can lower the jack slowly without a bunch of bubbling.
  6. Bleed the air out of the system:
  7. Re-plug the filler hole, test out the jack, and you're done, although you should still replace the leaking seals if you didn't already.

Remember to always work on hard, level ground, use jack stands, chock the wheels, and set the parking brake.

Tractors and Farm Equipment

Where do you fill the hydraulic oil on a 4230 Case tractor?


Auto Parts and Repairs
Classic 1964-1978 Ford Mustangs
Late Model 1979-New Ford Mustangs

How do you add fluid to a convertible top motor?

Thanks for the info. My top doesn't always go down, but of course today when I took it to the dealership it worked. Where do I find the conv. motor? (I've only had the car a couple of months.) 98' Mustang

Not sure if your motor is the same as mine ('71 Cutlass), but mine says the same thing: fill with Type A transmission fluid. Mine has a rubber plug on one end of the motor. All I have to do is pull that out (carefully so as not to tear it) and funnel in the fluid. After you fill it (until it runs out the hole) I would recommend running the top up and down a few times, then refill it. This should bleed out any air in the hydraulic lines. It's that easy for me...hopefully yours is the same. Oh, and I believe that Type A transmission fluid is equivalent to today's Dexron III or MERCON. Good luck!

Filling the reservoir until fluid runs out is a disaster waiting to happen. The reservoir should be filled with the convertible top in the lowered position and the final level should be approximately 1/4 inch below the bottom of the fill hole. Here's why: The reservoir is a buffer. There is always fluid in the upper and lower portions of the lift cylinders. When the cylinder rod is fully retracted, the reservoir is at it's highest level. This is due to the cylinder rod displacing some of the fluid in the cylinder. When the rod is extended (top raised) the entire bottom of the cylinder fills and reservoir level wiil be at it's lowest point. Imagine what happens if you fill the reservoir while in this position, and especially if you fill it until fluid leaks out. Hmmm, lower the top, level rises until there is no more room in the reservoir (or air volume is compressed until pressure blows the oring seals out). At this point, pressure in the reservoir will be greater than 300psi. (these pumps dead head at about 300-350psi) This means the main oring seal will blow out and the fluid in the reservoir will now be in your trunk. No one wants that.

Chemical Engineering
Civil Engineering

What is the Three Reservoir Problem?

This is a classic problem in hydraulic engineering. Three reservoirs are connected by pipes. All the reservoirs have surfaces at different elevations.

Given the height each reservoir and pressure loss in each leg of the pipe network, liquid will either flow into or out of each reservoir.

If you apply the Bernoulli equation from the surface of each reservoir to the pipe junction, you end up with three nonlinear equations in four unknowns (the flowrates in each leg of the piping network and the total pressure head at the junction). An additional equation is supplied by applying the Continuity Law at the pipe junction (i.e. the sum of all flowrates at the junction is zero if there is no outflow).

This now gives four equations in four unknowns; no analytical solution is possible. You can solve the equations iteratively, however, using a tool like Excel. See the spreadsheet in the related link for an example

Mechanical Engineering

What is use of cushion in hydraulic system?

to absorb the vibration damping.

Chemical Engineering
Industrial Engineering

How do you separate oil from coolant?

Oil is high because of the low density of the coolant.


What does oleo-hydraulic mean?

It means hydraulic oil but its written in the language of the machine's manufacturing country.

Clutches and Flywheels
Saturn S-Series

How do you bleed the hydraulic clutch on a 2000 Saturn SL2?

unfortunately Saturn went out on a limb to produce easy swappable parts in their cars. the clutch hydraulic system can not be bleed. it was intended on being replaced as an entire unit, filled with fluid and bleed at the factory. I've made many trips the salvage yards to obtain a entire assembly.

Mechanical Engineering
Machinery and Tools

What is the difference between hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor?

A hydraulic pump uses an external mechanical force to pressurize the hydraulic fluid. A hydraulic motor uses the pressurized hydraulic fluid to apply a mechanical force an external machine.

See the difference between a pump and a motor.

Clutches and Flywheels
GMC Sierra

How do you bleed a hydraulic clutch system on a gmc sierra?

shhould be da same way u bleed your break system... bleed valve on clutch master cylinder...


What is a limited rotation hydraulic motor?

A limited rotation hydraulic motor provides a rotary output motion over a finite angle. This device produces a high instantaneous torque in either direction and requires only a small amount of space and simple mountings.

Rotary motors consist of a chamber or chambers containing the working fluid and a movable surface against which the fluid acts. The movable surface is connected to an output shaft to produce the output motion.

Figure 4.1 shows a direct acting vane-type actuator. In this type, fluid under pressure is directed to one side of the moving vane, causing it to rotate. This type of motor provides about 280° rotation.

Rotary actuators are available with working pressures up to 350 kg/cm3 (4978 psi). They are typically foot mounted, flanged or end mounted. Most designs provide cushioning devices. In a double vane design similar to the one depicted in the figure above, the maximum angle of rotation is reduced to about 100°. However in this case, the torque-carrying capacity is twice that obtained by a single vane design.

Auto Parts and Repairs

What damage will faulty hydraulic lifters cause?

faulty lifters at the best will rattle, at the worst they will not lift the valves properly . valves not opening and closing properly will greatly interfere with the proper running of the engine.can also cause a push rod to come loose and fall into the engine, breaking or bending other parts

Mitsubishi Eclipse

Where can you get hydraulic pumps to open and close mu trunks?

I would recommend a linear actuator. It is electronic and speed adjustable. stylinconcepts.com should carry them. eBay may yield you the lowest cost however.

Auto Parts and Repairs
Mechanical Engineering

How do you disassemble a hydraulic Jack?

you need a Hydraulic jack disassembler.

Conditions and Diseases

What happens when hydraulic fluid is ingested?

If swallowed, large volumes of Hydraulic fluid can cause generalized depression, headache,drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Smaller doses can cause a laxative effect. If aspirated into the lungs, liquid can cause lung damage.

Hydraulic fluid does not contain any components at concentrations above 0.1% which are considered carcinogenic by OSHA, IARC or NTP.

Combustion Engines

How does a hydraulic flow divider work?

A rotary flow divider is essentially two hydraulic gear motors of equal displacement that are mechanically linked (the output shafts are coupled together). When fed from a single line, they must both turn at the same speed because they are linked and becasue they have equal displacement they therefore use the same amount of oil, hence evenly dividing the input oul between the two motors.

Mechanical Engineering

Is Hydraulics More Effective Then Pneumatics?

My thoughts go like this...(from watching 'Scrapheap Challenge"0 plus a little basic knowledge of physics.

1/ Pneumatics involve the movement of pistons and what not via the medium of compressed air or air under pressure.

2/ Hydraulics involve the movement of pistons and what not via the medium of compressed fluids or fluid under pressure.

3/ Fluid is denser than gas (compressed air).

I believe hydraulics can handle far heavier loads than pneumatics.

Pneumatics would appear to use a lighter more flexible medium than hydraulics.

In answer to your question, I believe hydraulics would be far more effective at manipulating heavy loads versus pneumatics.

However, pneumatics would be a more flexible system than hydraulics.

Hows that?

Job Training and Career Qualifications
Electronics Engineering

What is instrumentation engineering?

Instrumentation Engineers are responsible for the design, construction and maintenance of instruments and entire instrumentation systems considered being the eyes and ears of any industrial undertaking. The type of instruments needed for ensuring better quality and efficiency of the end product are decided by an instrumentation engineer. responsibile for installation and commissioning. as well as trouble shooting.


What is a 4 way hydraulic control valve?

The number is four ways in and out of oil.

Way valves in the hydraulic system with a number of ways in and out of the way oil and positioning are introduced. For example, two-position four-way valve.

Mazda MPV

Does a 95 MPV V6 have hydraulic or solid lifters?

It has hydraulic lifters that are known to get noisy. Mazda sells a shim set that can be installed under each lifter to reduce clearance so that the lifters don't require as much pump-up travel. The lifters are located in the ends of the rocker arms, replacing or shimming them requires the removal of part of the intake plenum. You can also buy new lifters in the aftermarket for about $20. each, but there is 12 so it's not exactly cheap.

Civil Engineering

What is the difference between a pile foundation and an ordinary foundation?

Pile foundations are typically much deeper than they are wide. This means that their ability to resist loads is mainly derived from the vertical friction of the side of the pile against the soil (skin friction). However it should be noted that a number of closely spaced piles will act as a group and as such can also have significant resistance to loads by end bearing.

Regular foundations rely on the bearing pressure between the soil and the underside of the foundation, they are cheaper and more common. Piles will be used when greater forces are needed to be transferred to the ground over a smaller area, such as with high rise buildings and those in densely built up areas where land comes at a premium and ground movements will affect neighbouring buildings. A pile can be thought of as analagous to a tent peg whereas an ordinary foundation is like a flagstone.


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