Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rock is formed when minerals and other organic materials are deposited in layers by water, ice, wind, or mass movement such as mudslides.

3,399 Questions
Sedimentary Rock

What is the hardness of ferruginous sandstone?

it is a rock all rocks are hard unless you put the rock in water or smash it to peices

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Sedimentary Rock

What sedimentary rocks have fossils in them?

Fossils are commonly found in limestone, sandstone and shale.

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Sedimentary Rock
Igneous Rock
Metamorphic Rock

What are the three main types of rocks and their definitions?

Rocks are categorized into three distinct types based on their method of formation. The three types are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Early in Earth's history, all rock was igneous, having formed from the cooling of melt on the surface.

An igneous rock is simply a rock that has solidified from magma or lava upon cooling. Igneous rocks can be intrusive (solidified from magma underground) or extrusive (solidified from lava at or near the surface). The bulk of Earth's crust is formed from igneous rock. Examples of igneous rock include basalt, obsidian, rhyolite, granite, diorite, gabbro, and pumice.

A sedimentary rock is one that is formed by the accumulation of small to large sediment particles derived from all three types of rock and in some cases organic material, and undergoes compaction, cementation, or evaporation from/precipitation from a saturated mineral solution. Sedimentary rock is classified as organic, (derived from organisms), clastic (formed from any size particle of preexisting rock), or non-clastic (also referred to as chemical), where the sedimentary rock is formed from the evaporation of a solution that is saturated with mineral compounds. Examples of organic sedimentary rocks are coal and limestone. Examples of clastic sedimentary rocks are conglomerate and shale. Examples of non-clastic or chemical sedimentary rocks are rock gypsum and rock salt.

A metamorphic rock is an igneous, sedimentary, or another metamorphic rock that has either been squeezed by incredible pressures deep underground and/or has been exposed to very high temperatures, altering its structure, mineral alignment, or chemical composition. Metamorphic rocks are classified as contact (from proximity to a magmatic intrusion) or regional (resulting from deep burial and pressures from plate collisions Metamorphic rock is also classified as foliated or non-foliated, foliation being the parallel alignment of the constituent minerals in bands that are perpendicular to the applied pressure. Metamorphic rocks can also be described by the grade of metamorphism which has taken place from low to high, high being the closest to the next stage in the rock cycle, melting. Examples of metamorphic rock are slate, quartzite, marble, phyllite, schist, and gneiss..

The three major types of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.

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How are mud cracks formed on sedimentary rocks?

The dessication of wet mud caused its surface to crack. The cracked, dried surface was then covered in with an influx of fine sediment which preserved it. At some point in time, the weight of additional sediments caused compaction and cementation of the mud crack bearing sediments. The fossilized mud cracks could then become exposed at the surface through the processes of weathering and erosion. To be clear, the mud cracks were formed before the sediments turned into rock, not after.

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Sedimentary Rock

Diagenesis of sedimentary rocks?

Diagenesis - Diagenesis is the process that turns sediment into rock. The first stage of the process is compaction. Compaction occurs as the weight of the overlying material increases. Compaction forces the grains closer together, reducing pore space and eliminating some of the contained water. Some of this water may carry mineral components in solution, and these constituents may later precipitate as new minerals in the pore spaces. This causes cementation, which will then start to bind the individual particles together. Further compaction and burial may cause recrystallization of the minerals to make the rock even harder.

Other conditions present during diagenesis, such as the presence of absence of free oxygen may cause other alterations to the original sediment. In an environment where there is excess oxygen (Oxidizing Environment) organic remains will be converted to carbon dioxide and water. Iron will change from Fe2+ to Fe3+, and will change the color of the sediment to a deep red (rust) color. In an environment where there is a depletion of oxygen (Reducing Environment), organic material may be transformed to solid carbon in the form of coal, or may be converted to hydrocarbons, the source of petroleum.

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How does sedimentary rocks absorb water?

Some sedimentary rocks, such as a sandstone, have very small spaces between the grains of sand. Liquids such as water or oil will collect in these spaces and that is why oil prospectors look for this type of rock in the hope of finding an oil reservoir.

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What is sedimentary rock used for?

  • Coal is burned to create energy.
  • Gypsum is used to make plaster of Paris and in drywall and board chalk
  • Sandstone and limestone are used as building stone and in the production of glass.
  • Limestone is also used for hard core in roads, and is cooked to make cement.
  • Shale is mixed with sand and used to make bricks.
  • Iron ores are mined and smelted to create iron metal.
  • Smectite clay is used as a digestive cure.
  • Salt is an essential food.
  • Scientific research


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What is greywacke used for?

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Sedimentary Rock

How is sedimentary rock formed?

Methods of Sedimentary Rock Formation#1. The classic route begins with the weathering and erosion of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks. Through these processes, larger rock is broken up into smaller particles which are transported by moving water, ice, gravity or wind, and deposited at the bottom of a lake, a river delta, an ocean, or similar location where further movement is restricted or slowed down. The rock particles can range in size from boulders to clay particles less than .002 mm in diameter. If these rock particles are covered by additional particles, eventually the weight from above will start the process of lithification. Lithification is the compaction and cementation of particles which form rock. Compaction squeezes out the fluids and space that exist between the particles, and cementation results when the fluids that are squeezed out are replaced with minerals that crystallized from the fluids. Once cementation occurs, the new sedimentary rock has been formed. Rocks formed in this manner include sandstone, shale, mudstone, breccia, and conglomerate and are called clastic sedimentary rocks.

#2. Organic sedimentary rocks like some limestones and coal are formed largely from the remains of once living organisms. Chalk and fossiliferous limestones are formed from the skeletons of marine organisms. Coal is formed from vegetation that previously existed in swampy and marshy waterlogged soils which prevented their full decay after their death. As their remains piled up and were covered by more and more deposits, they gradually underwent compaction and cementation as described in #1. above.

#3. Sedimentary rocks can also form when minerals in a body of water have so saturated the water that they precipitate out, like a cloud that is so full of moisture that it pours out rain. Some limestones are formed in this manner as the mineral calcite precipitates out of a saturated solution and undergoes the process of compaction and cementation. The supersaturated solutions can also be caused by evaporation of a body of water high in mineral content. As the water evaporates, the mineral percentage of the remaining solution becomes higher and higher, until the mineral crystallizes. Rocks such as rock salt and rock gypsum are formed in this manner. Sedimentation from precipitation and evaporation form rocks called chemical sedimentary rocks.

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Why is limestone used for road stone?

its hard, durable, attractive and easy to fix

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Sedimentary Rock

How do i repair a sandstone sidewalk?

pull the sandstone up,cut it in varying sizes(cuts really easy)

lay a crushed stone base or paver base stone,set on top and level looks nice when finished

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Sedimentary Rock

What are the characteristics of sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rock has several characteristics which make it possible to distinguish from other rock types.

Clastic sedimentary rock is composed of particles of previously existing rock. The most common example of this would be sandstone, a rock composed of cemented particles of sand where the texture can be seen and felt. The particles in clastic rock need not be sorted or homogenous however. Conglomerate and breccia are also clastic sedimentary rock where different cemented rock fragments are easily visible and may vary greatly in size and lithography. Stratification is also visible in many clastic sedimentary rocks. The stratification (layering) is due to cyclical, event based, or origin based deposition of sediments.

Organic sedimentary rocks like coal and some limestones are partially or wholly derived from the life processes of organisms and that fact may be reflected in an abundance of fossils appearing in the rock. Fossils are not found in igneous rock or metamorphic rock except in very rare instances due to unusual circumstances. Normally, the discovery of a fossil is a good indication that the rock is sedimentary.

Sedimentary rocks could be, or exhibit:

  • Sedimentary layers from cyclical deposition.
  • The presence of fossil organisms.
  • Be derived from organic processes (like coal).
  • Be more porous and less dense than other rock types.
  • Reaction to dilute acids.
  • Formed of particles of other rock fragments.
  • Fine grained.
  • Created by evaporation of saturated solutions.
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Sedimentary Rock

How do you determine the age of sedimentary rocks?

There are two general means:

  • Relative dating: The rock is dated relative to neighbouring rocks by the four laws of relative dating: Superposition, Cross-cutting Relationships, Included Fragments and Unconformities. Further detail on these is provided beneath. Another means is the use of 'zone fossils'. Zone fossils are those which are known only to have occurred in a very specific time frame. Rocks including such fossils are dated in the same period as others containing the same fossils. A further means is 'way-up' evidence.
  • Absolute dating: this does not apply to sedimentary rocks unless they contain traces of the original organic material. This can only be applied to Igneous rocks, or perhaps some metamorphic rocks.

The laws of relative dating are broken down more specifically here:

  • Superposition: Rocks are 'piled' on top of each other, resulting in multiple strata being formed, the youngest at the top, the oldest at the bottom.
  • Cross-cutting relationships: When there is an igneous intrusion especially, one can automatically assume that the intrusion entered into the country rock after the country rock was formed. Furthermore, if there was a crack in the rock, this could be in-filled with sediment, thus the sediment is younger than the cracked rock.
  • Included fragments: sometimes when a volcano erupts it removes fragments of the cone with it, which are later discovered amidst the erupted igneous rock, thus this country rock is an included fragment, and is older than the igneous material it is encased in.
  • Unconformities: Unconsolidated sediment which appears to cross multiple rock strata is younger than the rock it is deposited onto. Furthermore, one must consider the lava flow. After it has been identified as a lava flow (by studying baked/chilled margins), it is clear that it is younger than the rock it is on top of.
  • 'Way-up' evidence: This helps you to ensure that you have not got the rock series the wrong way up, with the oldest at the top. There are a number of ways this can be identified:
    • Sedimentary features: Sole marks, dessication cracks, flute casts and graded bedding may all contribute to finding way up evidence. There are many more sedimentary features which contribute. For example, a sole mark looks like a small dip in cross section, so it can only be a 'U' shape for it to be the right way up.
    • Baked/chilled margins: In a cross-section, a lava flow always has one side on which there is a chilled margin and a baked margin on the country rock, whereas a dyke/sill always has two which makes them useless here. Therefore, if an igneous rock appears to have just one chilled margin and matching baked margin on the country rock, it is a lava flow, and the baked/chilled margin can only be beneath the extrusion.
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How are fossils formed in sedimentary rock?

There are multiple methods of fossilization, but fossils generally are formed by rapid burial of organisms or traces of organisms by sediments. The website of the New York State Geological Survey offers a useful introduction to the differing processes of fossil formation. Please see the related link for details.

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Are pebbles classified as a sedimentary rocks?

A pebble is a rock that is rounded by some sort of force. whether it be wind or water. A pebble can be a sedimentary rock but it could also be metamorphic or igneous.

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Noise Pollution
Sedimentary Rock

What are some problems involved with quarrying limestone?

Some problems are: 1. Dust pollution: the surrounding greenery is covered in a layer of dust 2. Noise pollution: loud explosions every day 3. Lorries carrying limestone to and fro cause noise and pollution 4. Quarries damage the landscape 5. Quarries destroy natural animal habitats etc etc.

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Which is required for the formation of sedimentary rock?

Sediments, Detrituse, and other uncosolidated Materials.

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Sedimentary Rock

What are the advantages of living by a limestone quarry?

jobs

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Sedimentary Rock

How do sedimentary rocks form?

#1. The classic route begins with the weathering and erosion of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks. Through these processes, larger rock is broken up into smaller particles which are transported by moving water, ice, gravity or wind, and deposited at the bottom of a lake, a river delta, an ocean, or similar location where further movement is restricted or slowed down. The rock particles can range in size from boulders to clay particles less than .002 mm in diameter. If these rock particles are covered by additional particles, eventually the weight from above will start the process of lithification. Lithification is the compaction and cementation of particles which form rock. Compaction squeezes out the fluids and space that exist between the particles, and cementation results when the fluids that are squeezed out are replaced with minerals that were in the fluids. Once cementation occurs, the new sedimentary rock has been formed. Rocks formed in this manner include sandstone, shale, mudstone, breccia, and conglomerate and are called clastic sedimentary rocks.

#2. Organic sedimentary rocks like some limestones and coal are formed largely from the remains of once living organisms. Chalk and fossiliferous limestones are formed from the skeletons of marine organisms. Coal is formed from vegetation that previously existed in swampy and marshy waterlogged soils which prevented their full decay after their death. As their remains piled up and were covered by more and more deposits, they gradually underwent compaction and cementation as described in #1. above.

#3. Sedimentary rocks can also form when minerals in a body of water have so saturated the water that they precipitate out, like a cloud that is so full of moisture that it pours out rain. Some limestones are formed in this manner as the mineral calcite precipitates out of a saturated solution and undergoes the process of compaction and cementation. The supersaturated solutions can also be caused by evaporation of a body of water high in mineral content. As the water evaporates, the mineral percentage of the remaining solution becomes higher and higher, until the mineral crystallizes. Rocks such as rock salt and rock gypsum are formed in this manner. Sedimentation from precipitation and evaporation form rocks called chemical sedimentary rocks.

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Sedimentary Rock

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

Sedimentary rocks can be formed in various ways, and are classified by the method of formation or content. Broadly, sedimentary rock is classified as being clastic, organic, or chemical. Following are the three types and how they are formed.

Clastic sedimentary rock:

The majority of sedimentary rock on Earth is formed from particles of pre-existing rocks. This route begins with the weathering and erosion of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks. Through these processes, larger rock is broken up into smaller particles which are transported by moving water, ice, gravity or wind, and deposited at the bottom of a lake, a river delta, an ocean, or similar location where further movement is restricted or slowed down. The rock particles can range in size from boulders to clay particles less than .002 mm in diameter. If these rock particles are covered by additional particles, eventually the weight from above will start the process of lithification. Lithification is the compaction and cementing together of sediment particles which form rock. Compaction squeezes out the fluids and space that exist between the particles, and cementation results when minerals form from the migrating solution. Once cementation occurs, the new sedimentary rock has been formed. Rocks formed in this manner include sandstone, shale, mudstone, breccia, and conglomerate.

Organic sedimentary rock:

Chalk and other fossiliferous limestones are composed of the skeletons of marine organisms. Coal is composed of vegetation that originated and was deposited in swampy and marshy waterlogged soils which prevented their full decay after their death. As their remains piled up and were covered by more and more deposits, they were compacted and cemented in the same manner as clastic rock.

Chemical sedimentary rock:

Sedimentary rock can also form when minerals in a body of water have so saturated the water that they precipitate out, like a cloud that is so full of moisture that it pours out rain. Some limestones are formed in this manner as the mineral calcite precipitates out of a saturated solution and undergoes the process of compaction and cementation. The supersaturated solutions can also be caused by evaporation of a body of water high in mineral solution content. As the water evaporates, the mineral percentage of the remaining solution becomes higher and higher, until the mineral crystallizes. Rocks such as rock salt and rock gypsum are formed in this manner.


It is formed by the sedimentation of material at the Earth's surface and also in the bodies of water.
Sedimentary rocks are formed at the bottom of lakes after being compressed over a long period of time...
Sedimentary rocks are formed mainly through a proccess called Diagnesis. Diagnesis can be defined as the combined process of gradual and contineous accumulation, stratification, compactation, sedimentation, cementation, and lithification of transported and deposited debrises, detrituses, regoliths and other earths disintegrated materials, to form sedimentary rocks over a long period of time. Sedimentary rocks are created or formed out of virtually anything that exists around, which can be moved either by wind, water, glacier or waves and deposited in a specific place over and over again. They are rocks that tends to "germinate" by addition of materials/matter in stratas/layers and then the materials hardens, glues up/cements to themselves and hardens with time.
Sand and other particles are buried, compacted, and cemented together.

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Sedimentary Rock

What are sedimentary rocks?

Sedimentary rocks are most often lithified sediments, the origin of which may be from igneous, metamorphic, or other sedimentary rock, and in some cases chemical solutions or organic matter. Erosion and weathering of rock creates a range of rock particles from boulder sized to microscopic. These particles are transported by wind, water or landslide to a point of deposition or resting place. If these particles continue to be covered with additional layers of particles, the compression from the weight above, will, in time remove most of the water from the sediments. As the water is removed, cementing minerals, such as calcite or quartz, solidify from the remaining solution and fill in the gaps between the particles. The result is a lithified sediment, better known as sedimentary rock.

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Is sandstone shiny or dull?

i think that it is dull

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Sedimentary Rock
Igneous Rock

What kind of rock is basalt?

Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, which means it has solidified from magma above ground. It is a mafic rock, meaning that it is relatively high in heavier element content, particularly magnesium and iron. Compared to felsic extrusive igneous rocks, like rhyolite, basalt is heavier and darker. Because of rapid cooling, basalt is composed of smaller crystals. Color ranges from greenish-black to black.
Both are igneous rock.

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What basis sedimentary rocks be identified?

Sedimentary rocks can be identified by the size of their particles.

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How is it possible that a sedimentary rocks change into marble?

It is possible for a sedimentary rock to become marble through the effects of environmental conditions such as pressure and temperature. They help to alter the structural and textural characteristics of the rock thereby changing it form and appearance. Limestone is a common sedimentary rock that is transformed in Marble which is a metamorphic rock. The process of changing a sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock is called Metamorphism.

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