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Could you go to jail if you don't pay taxes?

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YES! The government will eventually come after you for tax evasion, if you are living in the US. In Canada, there is no "tax evaders jail", but they would likely take some of your paycheck, or refuse to refund any other taxes until the full amount is paid. There are currently many tens of thousands of people in jail (or on parole/probation/special program) for tax-related charges.
The government's first interest would be getting restitution (i.e. paid in full), including interest and penalties. Assets can be seized, as well as current profits. Anyone having a business connection will receive notices to surrender "accounts payable" to the Government. This can be legally fought, but non-filers snubbing their noses at the system will not get much mercy. If the debtor agrees to pay up and remain current, he can avoid criminal prosecution and jail.

Going to jail is possible, but generally reserved for those whose failure to pay is intentional. The act of failing to file and pay is criminal. It is theft from the government and your fellow citizens. Just ask Leona Helmsley, a very wealthy and powerful person, who had accountants to do her bidding. Despite her famous quote that "...only the little people pay taxes...", she paid AND went to jail. And while not all these others went to jail, some did and all paid large amounts of back taxes and penalties. Note that they cover a broad range of people...all very wealthy, able to afford the best of defenses by the most competent of teams of tax law experts AND had "ins" with the system, even up to and including a VICE PRESIDENT (who was also a lawyer, and one may suspect has all the inside info and political favors to call). They were all subject to tax of many types and were found to either failed to pay, or even just not pay enough. Actor Wesley Snipes, Country singer Willie Nelson, Baseball star Darryl Strawberry, Former Vice President Spiro Agnew, "Survivor" Richard Hatch (released from jail this week I believe), Mobster Al Capone (thats right...the most wanted man, and one of the richest and most powerful men of his time, actually was never found guilty and jailed for any of those acts, but spent his life in jail when prosecuted for tax evasion), Tennis star Boris Becker (who wasn't even a US citizen), "Hollywood Madam" Heidi Fleiss to name a few.

Many people rely on governments for programs and services : Social Security, Medicare, child benefits, and others. Add to that, if any of your earnings ever have withholding (payroll or interest), you can't get them back without filing.

While there are many people who have done some time for tax evasion, the vast majority of those who refuse to comply are never prosecuted criminally.
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