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How do weather observations predict weather?

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Modern meteorologists use the numerical weather prediction method. This method uses mathematical simulations of the earth to predict the weather. A number of simulations are run in different countries worldwide, using weather observations relayed from weather satellites as inputs to the simulations.
They also need wind vanes, thermometers, ocean thermometers, ground thermometers, solar panels, rain measures to get accurate results.

Mathematical simulations can be used to generate either short-term weather forecasts or longer-term predictions. The improvements made to the simulations have allowed for many improvements in tropical cyclone tracking and air quality forecasts.
Manipulating the massive amount of data and performing the calculations necessary requires some of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. Even with the increasing power of supercomputers, the forecast of the simulations is only six days. Factors affecting the accuracy of predictions include amount and accuracy of observations, as well as problems in the simulation code.
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