Global Warming

Global Warming is the century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's surface, oceans, and atmosphere due to an increase in the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This warming is causing climate patterns to change.

31,691 Questions
Global Warming
Climatology and Climate Changes
Green Living

What are the predicted results of global warming?

It's pretty simple if you think about it. We are outgrowing the Earth that we live in. We are grossly overpopulated . We are using up all of our natural resources at an alarming rate Global warming is the reason why storms like hurricanes and tornados are so powerful now not to mention the polar ice caps are melting at an alarming rate. They say that in 10 years Florida will be under water.

Global Warming
Land Pollution

What are the main greenhouse gases causing global warming?

There are many gases which contribute to global warming. Some have a more potent effect than others. The number after the name indicates the equivalent greenhouse gas effect compared to carbon dioxide (the principal man-made greenhouse gas):

  • Water vapour (H2O) = ?
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 1
  • Methane (CH4) = 21
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O) = 298
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) = 22,200
  • Chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFC's) = 1000 to 9000

Water vapor is an odd one in the list. It contributes to global warming because as the atmosphere warms (from CO2 and the other greenhouse gases) the warmer atmosphere is able to to hold more water vapor, which in turn captures more heat, thus adding to the warming through the feedback effect. Most models though ignore the cooling effect that is also associated with water vapor and is a problem that even the IPCC admits they do not have a good handle on.

The forcing numbers for all significant green houses gases are as follows:

  • water vapor 36-72%
  • carbon dioxide 9-26%
  • methane 4-9%
  • ozone 3-7%
Global Warming
Ozone Layer

Does the ozone layer have anything to do with global warming?

No, Global Climate Change has very little to do with the Depletion of the Ozone Layer.

Recent global climate change or global warming is now considered by most climate scientists to be the likely result of increases in man-made greenhouse gas concentrations such as carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. These gases absorb strongly in the Infra red part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has the effect of trapping heat and raising the temperature of the lower atmosphere.

The depletion of the ozone (O3) layer or 'ozone hole' occurs mainly in the stratosphere, and is due to the catalytic destruction by atomic chlorine and bromine. The main source of these is from the photodissociation of man made chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds.

These effects are usually regarded as distinct phenomena. However there are a number of areas of linkage between ozone depletion and recent global warming.

  • The same CO2 radiative forcing that produces global warming is expected to cool the stratosphere leading to a relative increase in ozone depletion
  • Reduced ozone causes the stratosphere to absorb less solar radiation, thus cooling the stratosphere while warming the troposphere; the resulting colder stratosphere also emits less long-wave radiation downward, thus cooling the troposphere. Overall, the cooling dominates
  • Ozone depleting chemicals are also greenhouse gases.
  • One of the strongest predictions of the greenhouse effect is that the stratosphere will cool, due to less infra red radiation coming up from the surface and greater radiative cooling of the stratosphere due to more CO2.

Ozone is also created at the surface due to photochemical reactions between various man made pollutants, this adds to the greenhouse warming but is nothing to do with the ozone depletion in the stratosphere.

Global Warming
Climatology and Climate Changes
Latitude and Longitude

Does climate and vegetation vary with latitude only?

No, it is also determined by Elevation

Global Warming
Household Hints

What household items give off gas?

gas ranges, people, fire places & stoves

Global Warming

How can we stop Global Warming and Climate Change?

Governments and businesses have to

  1. Stop burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)
  2. Move completely to renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal and wave, geothermal and biofuel)
  3. Replant the great forests of the world to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

We the people have to

  1. Elect leaders who will do the above and lobby them to get things done
  2. Lobby the leaders and governments we have to get some action.
  3. Educate, talk, discuss with our family, our friends, our neighbors so everybody understands the problem.
  4. Whenever someone mentions "Hot today" or "Cold today", reply, "Yes, it's climate change." and talk about why it's happening.

We the children have to

  1. Talk to our parents about Global Warming and why it is happening.
  2. Talk to our friends, schoolmates and teachers
  3. Learn about government and how to elect people who care about the world.
  • Scientists have determined that a number of human activities are contributing to global warming by adding excessive amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
  • Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane accumulate in the atmosphere and trap heat that normally would exit into outer space.
  • So the only thing we can do to stop or slow Global Warming is to reduce the greenhouse gases.
  1. Governments have to act. They have to move from fossil-fueled electricity generation to renewable energy generation. Coal and oil-fired power plants have to close. They are contributing too much carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  2. Governments have to act. They have to educate and encourage people to use less electricity and oil, at least until all our power is renewable. One way this might be done is to force coal power stations to pay the real cost of their carbon emissions. This might force up the price of power, but the tax could be used to give money back to the consumers. The people could use the money to pay their higher electricity bills, or they could use less electricity and keep the money for other things.
  3. Governments have to act. They have to to grow trees and forests everywhere, so that the huge carbon sinks that used to cover the earth start growing back and the leaves start pulling CO2 back out of the atmosphere. They have to stop illegal logging and corruption so that all forests are protected. They have to grow plantation forests for paper and buildings, quick growing pine and other trees that are renewable.
  4. Governments have to act. They have to put incentives in place so people will use energy efficient transport. This means walking, bicycles, public transport of all kinds, and private cars run on renewable energy (solar or hydro electricity, or hydrogen cells).
  5. Businesses have to act. They have to stop their polluting practices and turn green. They may do this because it's the right thing to do, or they may do this to avoid paying carbon taxes for their crimes. But they have to do it.
  6. We all have to act. If everyone turned their TV off at the wall instead of with a remote control, or even at the set, it would mean that thousands of power stations across the world would NOT have to be built. It is estimated that 10% of the power in an average house is this "vampire" current that silently sucks out the electricity from "stand-by" equipment even when the machines are turned off.
  7. We all have to act. If we all wore warmer clothes in winter and didn't heat our homes so much, and the opposite in summer, if we stopped using clothes dryers but used the wind and the sun like our grandparents did, if we hopped on a bicycle to go to the corner store instead of getting into the car, all these things will play a small part in reducing the long term effects of global warming.


We can try to prevent global warming by saving energy. Some ways to save energy are by doing the following:

  • Turn off the lights when not in use.
  • try not to use air conditioning very often. Eat or drink something cold instead.
  • In the winter, try not to use the heater very often. Have some soup or something hot.
  • Do not watch television too often. Watch it in moderation.
  • Do quick five-minute showers.
  • Only use the computer for work
  • Buy energy saving appliances such as energy efficient light bulbs, and things like kettles etc, that aren't too expensive. the energy efficient bit means less heat is lost unnecessarily.
  • People should try to recycle more in order to reduce the requirement for the constant production of new materials
  • The use of public transport or even bicycles/walking/carpooling instead of everybody traveling in separate cars
  • By carpooling you will send less greenhouse gasses into the air.
  • To minimizing global warming you could drive your car less and take an alternative like walking or riding a push bike as much as possible as well as
  • Converting to solar power instead of electricity. You are making a difference.
  • You could tax automotive fuel, and use the money to fund free urban public transportation.
  • Electric powered cars will make less CO2 going into the atmosphere, and also, this way we can save oil.

It is too late to prevent substantial global warming over the course of the next century. We can delay effects by reducing our consumption of fossil fuels, but we have essentially already pulled the trigger on global warming. Worse, we continue to ignore the findings of science and insist on ever larger subsidies for our fossil fuel industry.

On a positive note, the US HAS reduced is carbon emissions a little bit in the past two years. Earth passed 350 ppm CO2 levels in the 1980s, which many scientists consider to be the maximum sustainable level. We are now at nearly 400 ppm, and will pass 500 ppm before 2050.

Ways to reduce global warming:

  1. Stop burning fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)
  2. plant trees and keep your surroundings clean
  3. recycle things and use biodegradable things
  4. prefer public transport and car pools many times
  5. reduce the use of ACs, generators and heaters
  6. don't let the smoke from the factories and industries go in rivers and lakes
  7. Save water by not letting the tap keep running when not in use

Unfortunately, not at the present time. We can begin taking steps to slow down our production of greenhouse gas, but earth will continue warming for centuries to come solely on the basis of our emissions over the past century.

At this point all you can do is slow it down. That would help the world out a lot.

  1. Stop the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) in industry, transport and the generation of electricity.
  2. Start using renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal and wave, geothermal and biofuel).
  3. Plant billions of trees to replace the destroyed forests.
Global Warming
Planet Venus
Air Pollution

What planet is very hot due to its runaway greenhouse effect?

Venus, the second planet from the sun, is covered in clouds and has a very high surface temperature due to its greenhouse effect.

Due to an excess amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), its temperature is 460 degrees Celsius or 850 Fahrenheit or 735 Kelvin. It is the hottest planet.

It has a very thick atmosphere of Carbon dioxide that is considered a runaway greenhouse effect. Its average surface pressure due to the thick atmosphere is 93 bar, or 93 times that of Earth's. It is also the hottest planet.

The greenhouse effect occurs on every planet with an atmosphere (including Earth). On Venus, the runaway greenhouse effect is causing temperatures high enough to melt lead. Venus lost its oceans due to its greenhouse effect.

Global Warming
Climatology and Climate Changes

How is climate change affecting Antarctica?

Antarctica is the coldest place on our planet, far colder than the Arctic, so changes from global warming will be slower to happen and difficult to measure.

However, there are changes happening. Ice is melting at the edges and snow is building up in the centre!

Warmer air means more moisture in the atmosphere, and this is falling as snow on the centre of the continent. This snow doesn't melt, but builds up as ice.

Approximately 100 cubic kilometers (24 cubic miles) of ice melts in Antarctica every year (NASA's Grace satellite).

East Antarctica is a high, cold, desert plateau. Satellite data show a little mass loss at the edges, but this is counterbalanced by a buildup of snow in the centre. Not much is happening in East Antarctica.

West Antarctica is a series of islands covered with ice, with most of the ice resting on the floor of the ocean (1.7 km or more than 1 mile below sea level in places). The 'grounding line' is where the front of the glacier touches the sea bed. These grounding lines are retreating, which means that the glaciers are losing mass. When this happens, when the underwater part of the glacier melts, the top becomes an ice shelf. An ice shelf is very vulnerable to a warming ocean and the Antarctic ice shelves have been collapsing.

In 2002 the Larsen-B ice shelf (the size of Rhode Island) collapsed and was caught on satellite cameras. The 12,000-year-old ice shelf crumbled in three weeks. After the collapse, the glaciers behind the ice shelf sped up their movement into the ocean.

NASA's satellite measurements show that Antarctica has been losing more than 100 cubic kilometers (24 cubic miles) of ice each year since 2002. The rate of melting is also speeding up.

Global Warming
Green Living
Al Gore

What does Al Gore say about global warming?

Al Gore says that global warming is happening, we CAN stop it, and we have to stop putting greenhouse gases into the air and conserve energy and resources.

Al Gore believes strongly that global warming is a very serious and dangerous effect that man is causing. He is a outspoken leader on our need to curb our greenhouse emissions. His comments and leadership is unquestionably for serious action. In April 2014, speaking at the University of Hawaii, he warned, "the future of civilization is at stake!"

Global Warming
Green Living
Punjab Pakistan

What is the importance of green revolution?

The Green Revolution was the notable increase in cereal-grains production in Mexico, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, and other developing countries in the 1960s and 1970s. This trend resulted from the introduction of hybrid strains of wheat, rice, and corn (maize) and the adoption of modern agricultural technologies, including irrigation and heavy doses of chemical fertilizer. The Green Revolution was launched by research establishments in Mexico and the Philippines that were funded by the governments of those nations, international donor organizations, and the U.S. government. Similar work is still being carried out by a network of institutes around the world.

The Green Revolution was based on years of painstaking scientific research, but when it was deployed in the field, it yielded dramatic results, nearly doubling wheat production in a few.

Global Warming
Deforestation and Habitat Loss

How many trees are killed a year from pollution?

Thousands, probably millions. It's impossible to say. Pollution happens in many ways, air and water, and some effects take some time.

Global Warming
Fossil Fuels

How can fossil fuels harm the environment?

  • Burning fossil fuels creates pollution and pollution is bad for the environment.
  • they produce harmful greenhouse gasses
  • Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide emissions that add to the greenhouse effect. This is causing global warming and climate change.
  • Fossil Fuels are fuels formed by natural resources. It harms the environment because every time we use it, carbon dioxide goes into the air.


What is the environmental impact of the extraction, transport and use of fossil fuels?

The major fossil fuels we use are oil, natural gas and coal.

The oil spill now occurring in the Gulf of Mexico is an unintended consequence in the extraction of fossil fuels. Tanker accidents resulting in oil spillage are another way that fossil fuels impact our environment.

These impacts may harm the ecosystem, but the ecosystem may recover from spills. One of the largest oil spills occurred during the Kuwait war (see associated link), but the Persian sea (Arabian sea) has recovered.

The environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels has resulted in acid rain. The combustion process produces sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide, which combined with water vapor in clouds produces various acids.

The carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels is considered by many scientific organization to add to climate change or global warming. There is considerable information and technical reports available on the internet. The impacts of acid rain and global warming may be much more long lasting as they are difficult to reverse. A number of related links are included.

Global Warming

What are green house gases?

A greenhouse gas is an atmospheric gas that absorbs and retains energy from infrared radiation. Greenhouse gases must have at least three atoms, to vibrate and turn the radiation into heat.

Energy from the sun heats the earth's surface and atmosphere, which drives the earth's weather and climate. The earth's surface radiates some of this solar energy back into space. Certain atmospheric gases are called greenhouse gases (GHGs) because they help trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse.

Water Vapor is the primary greenhouse gas and makes up about 75 to 80 percent of all warming.

Carbon Dioxide is the second most common and makes up about 5 to 25% of the warming. Man is a contributor to this gas.

Other gases include virtually all gases with three or more molecules in them.
Some examples of the gases are:-

  • Most carbon oxides like carbon dioxide
  • Hydrocarbons like methane
  • Water Vapor is, by far, the most common (90%)

These gases are present in the atmosphere and the reflect the terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth at night. They help in maintaining warm temperature and their absence can cause severe temperature drop resulting in unsuitable conditions for life to survive. But too much of it can cause global warming.

When you get down to the actual factors. A gas that is considered a greenhouse gas is any gas that has three or more atoms in each molecule. Oxygen has two molecules and therefore does not have the mass to hold energy, while O3 (Ozone) has three and can hold more energy.

Global Warming
Carbon Footprints

What country has the smallest carbon footprint?

Kiribati, a small island nation in the Pacific Ocean, has the smallest carbon footprint. It is particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise from global warming, and its President signed the Bandos Island declaration on 10 November 2009. This was a promise by Kiribati and nine other countries to show moral leadership and start greening their economies by voluntarily committing to carbon neutrality.

Global Warming

Could we install giant mirrors in space between earth and sun to divert sunlight?

This might be possible, but before we go to the enormous challenge and expense of doing that it would be much smarter to develop the ability to use the tremendous amount of solar energy that we already receive.

If the point is to overcome global warming, rest assured that we already have several effective and practical methods of dealing with it and reversing it that are far easier and cheaper. But even those are generally unpopular, and are widely resisted and maligned.

Global Warming
Energy Conservation
Light Pollution

Why is it important to reduce reuse and recycle?

Recycling helps the Earth by not producing more waste onto our planet. We are throwing away far too much rubbish.

  • Our landfills are filling up. Many towns and cities have trouble finding new holes to dump rubbish in.
  • All sorts of paper and be recycled and turned into fresh paper and card. This uses far less energy than making new paper from trees.
  • All glass bottles and steel and aluminum cans can be recycled as well as all other metals, again saving energy. When we save energy we don't emit as much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, because usually we make electricity by burning fossil fuels like coal.
  • All plastics can be recycled, again saving energy. In some places only certain kinds of plastics are accepted, but all plastics can be recycled, even styrofoam (polystyrene).
  • We throw away food scraps and other organic matter like leaves, cotton, animal manure etc. These can all be composted to become garden fertilizer. Some will also generate methane gas which is good if we collect it and use it for heating, cooking or generating electricity. But methane gas is bad if we just let it seep out of landfills and into the atmosphere where it becomes a dangerous greenhouse gas, twenty-one times more deadly than carbon dioxide. And greenhouse gases are causing global warming.

So save the planet!

  • It is important to recycle because we need to save this world before it becomes a giant garbage dump!
  • I think everyone should recycle to try and help save most of the worlds resources and so that there is enough things for the future or next generations,and so that animals don't die and so that we don't destroy their natural habitat.
  • To reduce the amount of waste going to landfill. To reduce your carbon footprint and to help the ozone. It also puts a lot of commodity back into the system such as metal aluminum and paper.
  • Don't forget that when you recycle you are making the world more beautiful and healthy. Even the things you like the most could be recycled like a favorite shirt maybe it was once recycled and made into something you like.
  • Quite right, our planet looks disgusting at this moment, and if we don't start to recycle soon, then our planet will turn into a toxic waste dump! All our future generations will be held back and our race will not survive, so I think we should all recycle and turn our world into that green, blue and white lovely planet we all love.
  • Recycling is important because if you recycle you can give another life to your rubbish. Many trees can be saved and we will have a better environment.
  • we need to recycle so we can help the environment and stop pollution
  • Because the land fill will slowly get smaller. (hopefully!)
  • People recycle to help the earth to become a cleaner and greener place!
  • Yes. We are polluting the earth by not recycling and filling the landfills with trash that doesn't need to be there.
  • Very important question. A Christian has a duty to recycle. Because if you believe in global warming for one thing you are saving this earth and millions of lives!
  • Because its helps save the earth and make it a better place to live. It also can keep pollution down and save animal and possibly peoples lives.
  • Because the old materials are reused again instead of having to use up all the new material.
  • Well one of the main reasons for recycling is,because we only have a certain amount of products on earth so if we just through them out it will be wasted and eventually we will be out of glass, paper, glass. but if we recycle it even though there may be a possibility that we run out even from recycling we have been able to make new stuff like bags sun glasses certain clothes and heck if no one tells you what they are made of you wouldn't tell anyway.
  • Because when you don't recycle then there will be Co2 and Co2 makes global warming. Global warming can be very dangerous for us because because that means the Earth gets hotter and hotter and one day the Earth will be to hot for us to live on. People keep on doing this so when you are one of these people please stop that!
  • We must recycle in order to reduce landfill waste. Many beautiful parks and lands are being taken up by trash yards because we produce SO much. We are so many people on Earth so we produce SO much. We all have So many cars that produce harmful gases that warm up the Earth. That causes ice caps to melt and temps to rise. That causes floods and wave damages. People who litter and do not save the Earth, thank you so much. Please RECYCLE! Save our home; our Earth. We were not made to deteriorate our home, we were made to live in it and cherish it for our children and so on. Keep it clean. Forever.
  • it is important to reduce reuse and recycle to help the earth survive. If we don't do these three things the our earth would be a dumpster. If we didn't do these then we would be doomed. no earth, no living, nothing.
  • All our non-recycled waste goes to a landfill. Sitting in a large heap does no good to the environment, when something can be re-used. Recycling will help get the most use out of something, and won't cause materials to be used only once. However, you must remember the order: Reduce-Reuse-Recycle. Recycling has some disadvantages, as you need to ship the materials to a recycling center, and distribute them. This uses a lot of fossil fuels.
  • To save the planet!
  • It Is Bad As We Are Running Low On Gas And Only Have 20 years of it left.
  • The reason some people recycle is because they want to save the planet. if you were to recycle you could save the planet too, and be one more climateer!
  • because landfills are filling up
  • yes we need to the earth is falling apart. Recycle please!
  • yes because your helping the earth become greener so you should recycle anything paper examples: newspaper, paper, cardboard, cans, and no staples and that will make the earth greener
  • it is good for the environment because it is a good thing to help the earth last longer. If you recycle water bottles, cans, paper or plastic bags you are reusing these items. Then they don't need to more of these
  • Recycling allows us to reuse materials that otherwise would take up space in land fills. It allows us to not have to make as many manmade materials. For example, instead of having a paper cup from McDonalds and just throwing it away, where it will decompose in the earth, you could recycle it and save a tree (that is, if many people recycled paper, which they do). People need to realize its importance. People also need to realize that recycling of products is often more damaging to the environment than simply creating new items. All recycling takes large amounts of energy, which is often supplied by coal-fired power plants. Much recycling gives off harmful by-products. This is not always the case, however it is much more common than people are aware of.
  • by recycling we can save the items which it is made of.
  • We can reduce landfill use.
  • In theory, we can reduce pollution.
  • Some recyclables use less energy to recycle than to create from raw materials.
  • Trees are cut down less, so we preserve natural habitats of a variety of animals and natural tourism attractions, and in the future there would be cleaner air because the trees could help with the pollution we've caused. # Glass, plastic, and other things that are non-biodegradable (can't be broken down) will stay on Earth in landfills for hundreds of years and latter on become very dangerous to humans and other animals. Added, they are made of nonrenewable resources that will eventually run out. If they are recycled, then we won't run out as quickly as we find a better way to contain our items (such as peanuts). It helps in the long run!
  • Our landfills would fill up and our environment would be TOTALLY BAD!
  • Because my tin cans and soda bottles pay the salaries of the coolest art collective ever!
  • Recycling is important because then we don't need to cut down as much of the forest as we are doing now, because right now we are cutting too many trees down. Pollution is too high, the earth is vulnerable and we need to keep our earth's oxygen and the environment clean. Recycling is important because it saves resources and it saves energy. It also reduces the amount of material that we have to consign to landfills.
  • It is good for the environment. Many things that you throw out could be used again, or could be used to make new items. This saves using more resources to make new products. It doesn't make much sense to dispose of something that still could be used for other things or the same purpose again.
  • Recycling can help stop Global Warming, because recycling means less trees being cut down. As you may have already known, trees exchange Carbon Dioxide to Oxygen, which really is helpful when it comes to Global Warming. Also recycling is cutting down on the amount of things we throw away and some things we throw away are harmful to our environment so this helps to cut down on that too
  • We recycle because it is good for the environment.
  • Recycling reuses our trash to keep it from polluting the earth , reducing wastes.
  • much less energy used
  • cheaper to use recycled materials
  • less energy used = less Co2
  • fewer trees cut down
  • sometimes you can get money for recycling
  • saves natural resources
  • saves space in landfills

In a small paperback book called STUFF The Secret Lives of Everyday Things, copyright 1997 by Northwest Environment Watch in Seattle, WA, authors Ryan and Durning with research assistance by Breslow, Halvorson, and Tohan, state that "Smelting is so energy intensive that aluminum earned the nickname "congealed electricity." Making a soda can of smelted aluminum takes energy equivalent to a quarter-can of gasoline. (Making a) 33-percent recycled can took about a sixth of a can of gasoline ..."

Despite the date of the book, similar numbers should apply today in 2011. If you determine the number of aluminum beverage cans emptied by consumers, you'll see that the following "good" things might occur. The amount of money needed to produce a typical soda can should be reduced, and the savings should be passed on to consumers. Or, because of recycling of aluminum, the cost of a can of soda is lower than it would otherwise be (the package is often more costly than the product itself). Less electrical energy should be consumed to make "new" aluminum products, thus allowing more energy for other uses, and/or hopefully keeping the price of electrical energy at comparatively lower values. One could envision a number of other beneficial outcomes, such as reduced environmental impact because of a comparatively lower demand for the earth's limited resources and the fact that such resources become more difficult to obtain as the earth's more-easily-obtained raw materials dwindle.

One thing about aluminum production that may not be apparent is that aluminum is made mostly from bauxite. This ore consists of aluminum atoms combined (chemically bonded) with oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a low-energy state; in other words bauxite has existed on the earth's surface for a long time like this (instead of "pure" aluminum) because these atoms bound together are a lower-energy state than if the pure elements existed in the same volume.

"Since highly electropositive metals tend to react at high temperatures with most materials, common pyrometallurgical processes cannot be used for smelting them. A straightforward method for producing these metals is first to purify a salt of a reactive metal and then electrolyze the salt for recovery of the metallic element." p.207, Unit Processes of Extractive Metallurgy, by Pehlke, 1973, Elsevier. What this means is that aluminum atoms are strongly attached/bonded to oxygen atoms, and to release the aluminum atoms from bonds with oxygen atoms requires a comparatively large amount of energy from some source. In this case, a large amount of electricity is needed to efficiently produce large amounts of "pure" aluminum.
If you can reuse something, why not? You won't have to waste resources that you don't have to.

Global Warming
Fossil Fuels

Where do fossil fuels get carbon from?

oil and gas are hydrocarbons so they contain hydrogen and carbon

e.g. methane is CH4 (one carbon and four hydrogen atoms)

Global Warming

What kind of scientist would study global warming?

Most likely an ecologist or meteorologist.

There is a specific degree called climatologist.

Global Warming
Slogans and Mottos

What is the best slogan for global warming?

  • yesterday is history tomorrow is a mystery today is a gift that is why we call it the present help save the earth today!
  • Earth-please do think about me
  • Alone we can make a difference , but together we can change the world and protect our mother earth from global warming!
Global Warming

Why do people study global warming?

Scientists study global warming because the need to know its causes and likely consequences. They also need to find ways of avoiding further global warming so that they can recommend appropriate action.

Other people choose to study global warming because they want to understand the issues and make an informed decision to help minimize our greenhouse gas emissions.

A:You need to study global warming because it is probably the most serious challenge facing the world at this time. If we understand it, then we can see what has to be done to deal with it. A:Global warming has been affecting climate change since the 1800s, and the CO2 levels are increasing each year because of human activity. Ice caps are already melting, ocean levels are rising, droughts are happening in some parts, more deserts are forming. This is all because of global warming, and we need to care about this, and to know what we can do about it.
Global Warming

What are two ways carbon enters the atmosphere?

From the natural carbon cycle out of the oceans, soil, and animals, and from the burning of fossil fuels.

Global Warming
Environmental Issues

What are the pros and cons of using road salt?


The cost of salt is much less than other environmentally friendly products.

It melts snow better than sand which doesn't really melt snow at all all it does is provide traction.


Extremely corrosive.

Can cause harm to the environment

Meteorology and Weather
Global Warming
Atmospheric Sciences

The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place is called what?

It is called the weather. All weather takes place in the atmosphere though it affects the ground.

Global Warming

Do plants emit carbon dioxide?

Yes, plants emit carbon dioxide at night and when they die. Plants emit carbon dioxide and they also capture it again. Plants, along with forests and other kind of vegetation and the world's oceans, emit 97% of the global carbon dioxide emissions. But not only do they emit carbon dioxide, they also capture it. This natural process is called the Carbon Cycle.

Global Warming

Is the material silk man made?

Nope, silk is naturally made from various sources, the best known being from the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. Silk itself is actually a natural protein fibre rather than a man made product. The only manmade thing about silk is when it has been woven into patterns and fabrics.


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