# What are the basic principles of electricity?

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Firstly, Electricity is the movement of electrons (Or positive "holes")
Some basic principles of electricity:

-Opposite electrical charges always attract each other, and Like electrical charges always repel.

-An INSULATOR is any material that inhibits (stops) the flow of electrons (electricity). Insulator material includes glass, rubber, and plastic.

-A CONDUCTOR is any material that easily allows electrons (electricity) to flow.
Conductor material includes copper, silver and gold.

-Any material with exactly 4 free electrons in the outer orbit are called SEMICONDUCTORS.
A semiconductor is neither a conductor or insulator.
semiconductor material includes carbon, silicon, and germanium.
These materials are be used in the manufacturer of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuit chips.

-Electron Theory states that current flows from NEGATIVE to POSITIVE. Electrons move from atom to atom as they move through the conductor towards positive.

-Conventional theory, also known as HOLE THEORY, states that current flows from POSITIVE to NEGATIVE. Protons or the lack of electrons (the holes) move towards the negative. (Current flow direction in Hole Theory is the opposite of that in Electron Theory.)

-Voltage is the electrical force that moves electrons through a conductor. Voltage is electrical pressure also known as EMF (Electro Motive Force) that pushes electrons. The greater the difference in electrical potential push (difference between positive and negative), the greater the voltage force potential.

-A Voltmeter measures the amount of electrical pressure difference between two points being measured. Voltage can exist between two points without electron flow.

-Voltage is measured in units called VOLTS.

-CURRENT is the quantity or flow rate of electrons moving past a point. Current flow is also known as amperage, or amps for short.

-An AMMETER measures the quantity of current flow. Ammeters are placed in series (inline) to count the electrons passing through it.

-Current flow is measured in units called Amperes or AMPS.

-Two common effects of current flow are Heat Generation and Electromagnetism.

HEAT: When current flows, heat is generated. The higher the current flow the greater the heat generated. An example would be a light bulb. If enough current flows across the filament, it will glow white hot and illuminate to produce light.

ELECTROMAGNETISM: When current flows, a small magnetic field is created. The higher the current flow, the stronger the magnetic field. An example: Electromagnetism principles are used in alternators, ignition systems, and other electronic devices.

-Resistance is the force that reduces or stops the flow of electrons. It opposes voltage. Higher resistance will decrease the flow of electrons and lower resistance will allow more electrons to flow.

-Resistance is measured in units called OHMS.

-Two basic types of Electricity classifications:

STATIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is standing still. Voltage potential with NO electron flow.
DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is in motion. Voltage potential WITH electron flow. Two types of Dynamic electricity exist:
Direct Current (DC) Electron Flow is in only one direction.
Alternating Current (AC) Electron flow alternates and flows in both directions (back and forth).

-Electricity can be created by several means: Friction, Heat, Light, Pressure, Chemical Action, or Magnetic Action.

In an automobile the battery produces electricity through chemical action, and the alternator produces electricity through magnetic action.

Friction creates static electricity.
Heat can act upon a device called a thermocouple to create DC.
Light applied to photoelectric materials will produce DC electricity.
Pressure applied to a piezoelectric material will produce DC electricity.
Chemical Action of certain chemicals will create electricity.
Other contributions:  the principles of electricity gradually became understood. Thomas Edison helped change everyone's life -- he perfected his invention -- the electric light bulb. Prior to 1879, direct current (DC) electricity had been used in arc lights for outdoor lighting. In the late-1800s, Nikola Tesla pioneered the generation, transmission, and use of alternating current (AC) electricity, which can be transmitted over much greater distances than direct current. Tesla's inventions used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes and to power industrial machines.
Answer 2 Thomas Edison did NOT invent the electric light bulb. This was something that several inventors worked on for many years. Edison, through trial and error, found that tungsten worked good and lasted long as a filament, and was able to draw sufficient vacuum in the bulb to make it last a long time.

Again, Edison primary worked on the principle of trial and error. Nikola Tesla figured out what he wanted to do, thought about and designed what he thought would work. When he built it, it usually worked.

Thomas Edison & Nikola Tesla worked in labs a few miles apart in New York. While Edison was working on his electric lamp, Tesla was working on the AC distribution system we still use today, in his lab lighted by fluorescent lamps he designed and built.
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