What is the difference between a secular and non-secular?

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It depends on the usage of these words.

As concerns governments and politics, a secular government is one that either maintains a wall of separation between religion and politics or one that actively regulates religion (although the latter is more properly called irreligious). Under this definition, a non-secular government would be a direct theocracy (like the Papacy in Vatican City or the Islamic Republic of Iran) where clerics of the religion wield primary political authority, indirect theocracies (like Saudi Arabia) where clerics have a strong advisory authority without having direct power, and states where religion is completely banned (like Hoxha's Albania).

As concerns personal life and life-cycle events, secular means "having nothing to do with religion" and non-secular means "having to do with religion". For example, a secular marriage is one officiated by the state exclusively and a non-secular marriage is one officiated by a cleric, usually in a religious building.

There is also the increasing tendency for people to identify as secular in place of identifying as atheist because of the stigma around the word atheist, even though this is a misappropriation of the word. Under this context, non-secular would ostensibly mean "religious".
Answer 1
A secular society is one that separates the religious from the civic. Two distinct forms of secular societies are in the USA and France both of which are also republics. In the USA secularism takes the form "separation of church and state" in France it takes the form of "laicite" or basically "separation of the church from the citizen, by the state" (note citizen not person, in France religion is seen to be a private matter with appropriate places and times for worship, it is not acceptable to bring religion into the public sphere. For more on this, research the veil controversy in France.)

A non-secular society is one where religion is experienced in many everyday events of civic life, and where it is part of the government. Examples would include theocracies like the ancient state of Israel where the High Priest was also a leader of the state. Or the modern state The Vatican ruled by the papacy.

Answer 2
The actual difference between "secular" and "non-secular" needn't have anything to do with society in order to be understood.

The word "secular" generally refers to non-religious things. Period.

The word "non-secular" generally refers to religious things. Period.

A non-secular wedding, for example, is religious; and is usually (but not necessarily always) held in a church or synagogue with a priest, pastor or rabbi as the officiant. Non-secular weddings are always somehow religious.

A secular wedding ceremony -- also called a "civil" wedding ceremony -- is non-religious; and is, likely as not, going to take place at something like the local city or county hall, presided over by a sworn city/county wedding commissioner, or judge, or someone like that.

Secular (non-religious) weddings can happen most anywhere (other than maybe in a church or synagogue... though there'd certainly be no legal or cultural prohibition thereof).

The word "secular" generally refers to non-religious things (whether or not they have anything to do with society). If something is "secular" or "civil," then it's non-religious.

The word "non-secular" generally refers to religious things (whether or not they have anything to do with society). If something is "non-secular," then it's somehow religious.
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