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What three major functions of business organization can you enumerate and explain briefly?
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Three main functional areas of a bsiness are HR (Human Resource) very important if you want to address the needs of your employees as well as managing company staffing require…ments. Administration is another, needed for the day to day running of the office and usually first contact with the customers. The third area is R&D (Research and Development), this is a major part of any successful company, as development is the future and without it their is no future.
What are three possible interfaces an OS provides to the user Briefly explain the functions of each?
command driven interface, icon driven, and menu driven interfaces. cannibus warrior
There are three main types of business organizations: (a) Sole Proprietorship (b) Partnership (c) Corporation Sole Proprie…torship In a sole proprietorship, an individual on his/her own account carries out the business or profession. No formal procedure is required for setting up a sole proprietary concern. Partnership A partnership is a business relationship entered into by a formal agreement between two or more persons or corporations carrying on a business in common. The capital for a partnership is provided by the partners who are liable for the total debts of the firms and who share the profits and losses of the firm according to the terms of their agreement. Partnerships (other than banking companies) are generally limited in size to twenty partners. The interest of a partner is transferable only with the prior consent of the other partner(s). However, a partner's right to a share of the partnership income may be received in trust for another person. Generally they are formed to pool resources and/or to retain experienced and talented employees. Corporation A corporation is a legal entity that has most of the rights and duties of a natural person but with perpetual life and limited liability. Shareholders of a corporation appoint a board of directors and the board of directors appoints the officers for the corporation, who have the authority to manage the day-to-day operations of the corporation. Share holders are generally liable for the amount of their investment in corporate stock and their personal property is immune from claims against the corporation-thus, their liability is limited. A corporation pays its own taxes and shareholders pay tax on their dividends. The corporation is its own legal entity and can survive the death of its owners and shareholders. A corporation is the best entity for eventual public companies. Corporations can raise capital through the sale of stock and stockholders are free to transfer their ownership. Corporations hold annual meetings and require directors to observe certain formalities. They are more expensive and complicated to form and require periodic filings with the state and also require annual fees. Private corporations can only sell their stock privately, though, there may be some restrictions on the number of their stockholders. In case of a subchapter S corporation, shareholders report their share of corporate profit or loss in their individual tax return. There are several other variations of corporations formed under the laws of the state where they are registered. There are more than 3 million corporations in the U.S.A.-largest being known as Fortune 500-which constitute about 20 percent of the total firms but more than 90 percent of total sales. There are about 11 million sole proprietorships but represent only 6 percent of the sales. Partnerships are about 1.5 in numbers and have the smallest-4 percent--share of the total sales.
The 3 punic wars were fought over many years and involved rome and carthage. The two fought for supermancy in the west, and the wars ended with the complete defeat of the cart…hage by rome
My take on line organization. For some people its coke, but for me it was in fourth grade playing red rover we call over............?
Business transactions include selling products and services. Managers do this to make a profit in order to keep their business operational.
The nervous system exists in animals. It serves to coordinate their movements as well as transmitting signals throughout the body.
product service knowledge
Operations, Marketing and finance
enumerate the major functions of the sozialization process
enumerate the branches of science
enumerate the three major branches of subranches of science
Types and Elements of Dictatorship A. Dictatorship Defined 1. Absolutism a. Rule that is not subject to constitutional restraint b. Unlimited jurisdiction on a ruler c.… Generally applies to all dictatorships 2. Authoritarianism a. Dictatorship by a person or small group b. Total constitutional power under authority of dictator c. Some individual rights are allowed to exist 3. Totalitarianism a. One political party totally dominates all aspects of society b. Gov. has complete control over people's lives 4. Relationship of Individual and State Liberal Democracy Authoritarianism Totalitarianism B. Types of Authoritarian Dictatorships 1. Absolute Monarchy §Hereditary, religious, or traditional societies §Saudi Arabia 2. One Person Autocratic § Power maintained through charisma § "Cult of personality" fades when leader dies or disgraced § Indonesia under Suharto § Iraq under Saddam Hussein 3. Oligarchy § Rule by small elite group § Elite may be religious elite (theocracy), family, or political elite § Iran under Ayatollah Ali Khamenei 4. Military Dictatorship § Rule by a military leader or military elite (Junta) § Military usually comes to power through coup § Chile under Pinochet § Cambodia under Pol Pot 5. Minority Tyranny § Ethnic or political minority controls government § Hutu extremists in Rwanda 1994 § South Africa under apartheid C. Elements of Dictatorship 1. Use of Force §Maintain / transmit control §Terror and violence are effective measures for subduing population §Swift and arbitrary punishment to anyone suspected of disloyalty §Torture, imprisonment, liquidation 2. Indoctrination §Systematic instruction of political ideas §Takes the place of education §Schools and university serve the interest of government 3. Controlled Participation §No dissent, no opposition §Massive censorship §Allow people a sense of participating in government 4. Direction of Popular Discontent §Direct government grievances towards a group of people §Government must find someone to blame (scape-goating) Advantages and Disadvantages of Dictatorships A. Advantages 1. Decisive Leadership §Debate is suspended for efficiency reasons §Quick and decisive action can be taken (domestically or internationally) 2. Political Stability and Social Order §No changes (sudden or gradual) §Low crime rates 3. Rapid Mobilization of Society's Resources §The nation becomes a "corporate state" §Government orders and receives what it requires §Manpower is at the disposal of the government 4. Strong National Defense §Due to corporate state nation has what it requires (army & ammunition) §Often an aggressive leadership 5. "Statism" §State is greater than the sum of its parts §Some individual freedoms are forgone §Citizens are united towards the advancement of state's goals §All citizens work toward the "greater good" B. Disadvantages 1. Subordination of Human Rights to the State §Denial of equality - "some are more equal than others" §Force is used to intimidate population 2. Elitism §Democracy reduces government to the lowest common denominator §Leads to institutionalization of racism, sexism, etc. 3. Racism §One group is superior to another = one person better than another §Can divide a nation 4. Militarism & Imperialism §Military might = expression of national will (might is right) §Government requires military to ensure its existence §May lead to expansionism 5. Unchecked Corruption §No checks and balances = no accountability to public §Leader takes what he wishes to ensure his own stability 6. Widespread Apathy §Electorate are passive due to oppressive government §Government is intolerant towards new ideas 7. Bureaucracy §No formal ways of doing things §Things are done on the whim of the leader or elite 8. Succession §Often little thought is given to successor while he is alive §Results are violent action within elite circles once dictator dies C. Conclusion to Dictatorships §Power is concentrated in the hands of a ruler or elite §Government is not subject to restraint of the constitution §Government is ruled by the will of the executive §Power of government is used to control citizens §Communism and fascism agree on the above, that's it NOTHING else Communist Totalitarianism A. Characteristics 1. Ideologically Driven §Goal is to create a new and perfect society §Reject all other ideologies 2. Elite Party Membership §Party is lead by a small elite §Represents a minority of the population 3. Secret Police §Ensures compliance towards the state with use of terror and intimidation §Monitors and spies on own civilians §Uses paid and unpaid informants 4. State Media Control §All media is controlled (distribution and access) §Censorship is key §Indoctrination (brainwashing) part of government policy 5. Controlled Economy §Economic production is geared towards state goals §Needs and wants of the state must be served B. Marxism §History is a class struggle §In capitalism, proletariat (workers) and bourgeoisie (owners of production) eventually clash in a violent revolution §From this revolution, a classless society will emerge with the values of the proletariat C. Values §Egalitarianism (all people are equal) §A classless society §Self-sacrifice for the collective good §Public ownership of all means of production (land, labour, & capital) §Economic planning to reach state goals §Communism must be spread throughout the world §Violence is a means to an ends (revolution) History of the Soviet Union (USSR) A. Russian Tradition §Multiethnic empire §Centralized, autocratic tradition of government B. History in Brief §Establishment of USSR - Lenin §Stalinization - Stalin §De-Stalinization - Khrushchev §Age of Stagnation - Brezhnev §End of the USSR - Gorbachev C. Lenin (1917-1924) 1. Established Bolshevik - one party state "Democratic Centralism" §Political parties were banned §Party - run newspapers 2. Reintroduced political oppression and use of state terror §KGB §Trotsky's Red Army eliminated rival elements 3. Implemented economic planning a. 1st War Communism §Marxist ideas of economic planning §Public ownership §Failed b. 2nd New Economic Policy(NEP) §Allows for some private ownership (mixed economy) §To be replaced once economy is running well with Marxist economy 4. Died prematurely §Power struggle for 4 years §Stalin takes power 1928 D. Stalin (1928-1953) 1. Becomes leader of CPSU after power struggle §All competitors are killed (Trotsky) 2. Continued and increased political oppression §Uses state terror and intimidation §Purges begin (killing large numbers of people) 3. Ends NEP §Begins 5 year plans §Wants USSR to industrialized rapidly §Goal is to be a modern society E. Khrushchev (1953-1964) 1. Allows for some freedoms in USSR §Anti-Stalinist literature allowed §Acknowledged the injustices of Stalin §De-Stalinization (Feb. 1956) 2. Reorganization of the economy: agriculture & planning §Aimed to establish new agricultural areas in USSR §Focus on modernizing agriculture (machines not ox) 3. Soviet Communism §Uses bribery and diplomacy to lure countries into USSR sphere of influence §Focus on third world countries §Intolerant of criticism (Hungary) 4. Confused Relationship with West §Tries to peacefully coexist with the west §Sought détente (peaceful solutions) in some areas §Confrontational in other situations (Poland & Hungary 1956) 5. The End §Removed after diplomatic errors (Cuba 1962) and economic failures F. Brezhnev (1964-1982) 1. Re-Stalinization a. Reestablished oppression and greater economic control over USSR §Dissidents were exiled or imprisoned §Gulag (labour camps) sentences increased 2. Increase Defense Spending §Aggressive foreign policy (Afghanistan 1979) §Nuclear arms race escalated §Results in domestic policy largely ignored G.Gorbachev (1985-1991) 1. Reason for the End of the USSR a. No new ideas for country b. Politics became stall c. Economic Instability §People's needs not being met d. Social Inequality §Privileged few in society (people in CPSU) §No incentive to improve 2. Economic planning and political reform led to collapse in 1991 a. Glasnost §Openness §Improve communication between state and its citizens b. Perestroika §Restructuring §Economic policies to Soviet economy §Focused on productivity, methods, & planning techniques §Increase consumer goods Generic Fascism A. Character §Post-democratic and post-industrial §Right-wing totalitarianism Communist Fascist Radical Reactionary B. Values 1. Human Inequality §Sexist, elitist, nationalist, militarist §Emphasizes differences between people §No equal rights, no equal treatment §Some races are inferior to others §Elimination of "undesirable" races to create a "master race" 2. Irrationally §Many core values based on faith, tradition, history §Science is perverted to use to "prove" values and differences 3. Hero Worship §Cult of personality §View of the past is the history of "Great Men" 4. Extreme Nationalism §Nation is central and takes on spiritual qualities §Nation = common purpose §Individuals exist to serve the state §Self-worth is linked to national greatness 5. Elitism §Democracy is weak and indecisive represents interest of majority therefore it will only achieve mediocrity §A select group is with knowledge and intelligence are required 6. Militarism §Viewed as an inspirational organization (pageantry and parade) §Useful to achieve goals of fascist expansionism §Military gives discipline and direction to the individual 7. Organized Violence and Lies §Mass murder and terror are used to destroy enemies of the state §World is black or white (friend or foe) §Indoctrination of civilian population key C. Social Background 1. Weak democracies unsettles owners of capital §Landowners are concerned about land seizure and redistribution (communism) §Industrialists fear labour radicalization 2. Lower middle class §Working class radicals (communists) cause concern about property redistribution §Landowners and industrialists are resented because of privileged position in society (proletariat vs. bourgeoisie) §Lower class wants a party that will keep upper and lower class in check 3. Society in Crisis a. Economic crisis = government must take action §Prevention of unemployment (Great Depression) §Protection against inflation b. Political crisis leads to rising chaos and crime §Government promises stability and order & decisive decision making c. During crisis, small mindedness and fear increase §Scape-goating is created §Action is required to "fix" problem d. Crisis may be real, perceived, or manufactured §Real = economic depression §Perceived = impending Communist Revolution §Manufactured = scapegoat a race or people Hitler's Germany 1933-1936 A. Failure of German Democracy 1. Proportional Representation §Allowed Nazi party to gain Reichstag seats (2.6% of pop. vote) 2. Weak Coalition Governments §Unable to pass legislation to deal with economic crisis §Never able to form a majority 3. Disunity Among the Left §Social Democrats split votes with German Communists (under Soviet direction) §Communist rejected cooperation with Social Democrats 4. Hostility to Parliamentary Democracy §German democracy was a product of an imposed peace from WWI §Hitler views Parliamentary Democracy as symbolic WWI defeat 5. Great Depression §Unemployment grew §Jan. 1932: 6 million unemployed §Government seems powerless to solve problem §Hitler promises economic recovery B. Rise to Power 1. Early Years (1919-1924) a. Economic and political upheaval §War reparation payments ($33 Billion) b. Coup was a failure; Hitler was imprisoned §November 9, 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putch §Nazi party was seizing power from the ruling government §Served 8 months of a 5 year sentence §Wrote Mein Kampf: an outline of the Nazi Party 2. Campaigning For Votes (1924 -1932) a. Nazi Party was reorganized very well 3. Consolidation of Power (1933) a. Nazi Party gains steady support during Great Depression §Hitler lost Presidential election to Hindenburg - 1932 §Nazi Party gained seats through intimidation of rival parties §Hindenburg forms government with Hitler to keep Nazis in check b. January, 1933: Hindenburg named Hitler Chancellor §Hitler calls for March 5 election §Feb. 27: Mysterious Reichstag fire §Results in suspension of liberties §Communists blamed for fire (scapegoat) §March 1933 election: Nazi-Nationalist bloc is finally successful c. Enabling Act passed § March 23, 1933 § Hitler now has dictatorial powers until 1937 § Hitler now removes all political opponents and consolidates power (Fuhrer) § April 1 boycotting of Jewish businesses C. Nazi Power Branch | Weimar Republic (Pre-Nazi) | Nazi Era / Executive | President (elected): Head of State President nominated Chancellor Chancellor: Head of Government | Enabling Act gave Chancellor dictatorial power from 1933-37 Chancellor and President combined into one office, 1934 (Führer) / Legislative | Upper Chamber (Reichsrat): regional representation Lower Chamber (Reichstag): proportional representation | Governors were appointed by Hitler; Reichsrat was abolished Enabling Act stripped Reichstag of lawmaking ability / Judicial | Judges were independent of executive and legislative branches | Judges and lawyers appointed by Nazi party Hitler's Germany 1933-36 A. Force 1. SA §"Brown shirts" responsible for party rise 1921-1933 §Eliminated as a political force "Night of the Long Knives" June 1934 2. SS §Created in 1925 §"Racially pure Germans" §Eliminate all party threats §By 1939 SS has 240,000 men 3. Gestapo (Secret Police) §Established concentration camps B. Indoctrination 1. Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda §March 1933 under Josef Göbbels §Ran propaganda campaigns for Nazi policies 2. Newspapers were monitored by the state (People's Observer) §Created a cult of the leader around Hitler §Hitler became Germany's saviour 3. Education §Schools were used to teach Nazi Party values 4. Youth organizations §Open to boys and girls age 10-18 §Pledged personal allegiance to Hitler C. Controlled Participation 1. National elections and plebiscites were hold occasionally § All candidates chosen by Nazi Party & approved by Hitler § Voters approve or spoil ballots 2. Women were reduced to traditional roles §Women's groups and birth control clinics were shut down 3. Economic life of Germany was organized under state control §Economy used to serve interests of Nazi party 4. Religion was placed under state direction §Catholic Church was reduced to symbolic status §Protestant ministers were arrested D. Direction of Popular Discontent 1. Radical Philosophy a. Divided races into 3 categories: §Culture-creating §Culture-sustaining §Culture-destroying b. Culture-destroying races deemed sub-human and had to be segregated 2. Anti-Semitism § Enabling Act (March 1933) boycotting of Jewish businesses § Gradual, legislative restriction placed on Jewish person § Nuremburg Decrees (1935) stripped Jews of political rights § Marriage, (Jews and Aryans) § Practice law, medicine, music, § Property confiscated § Kristallnacht (Nov. 9, 1938) initial stages of violent anti-Semitism · Destruction of Jewish homes, business, & synagogues · All Jewish children kicked out of school · Ghettos & camps established Dictatorships Unit Exam Characteristics of Dictatorships = 11 Power of the Dictator = 11 Totalitarian = 3 Nazi government = 11 USSR government = 8 Chile = 5 Comparing dictatorships = 1 Total = 50
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. Its function can be briefly explained as the process in which the handling, production and storage of food is carr…ied out so as to ensure that foods are kept safe.