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Anti-Black Voting Laws The end of the Civil War, the period of Reconstruction, and the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution were attempts to protect the rights, including voting, of the ex-slaves, especially in the states of the defeated Confederacy. The first attempt involved threats, violence, and scare tactics. The development of the Ku Klux Klan, and other anti-black groups in the South, terrorized those ex-slaves who attempted to register or to vote. Black males who tried to vote were often fired from their jobs. Physical violence, such as beatings and lynching, also took place. New State laws were passed in the Southern states, following the end of Reconstruction, which tried to negate the purpose of the 15th Amendment. Literacy Tests were required in order to register, and the tests were made to prevent Blacks from passing. Grandfather Clauses were passed which prevented anyone from registering to vote unless their grandfathers had been eligible to vote. Descendants of slaves were thus denied the right to vote. Many states enacted poll taxes. Anyone who could not afford the tax (usually poor whites and Blacks) were denied the right to vote. With the threat of violence to the Black voter, or his family, and the fear of loosing a job, or the cost of paying the taxes, many Blacks simply gave up trying to vote and concentrated on trying to keep a job that would enable a family to survive the economic conditions in the south.
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Prior to 1865, only white men. Following the Civil War, black men could also vote (except where disenfranchised by various laws in the South). Women could not legally vote in …most of the nation until 1920, although several tried. They were able to vote earlier in countries such as France and New Zealand.
Women earned half of what men earned. Women and children were large parts of the workforce. There were arbitrary wage cuts There were arbitrary wage cuts. Women and child…ren were large parts of the workforce.
development of closer political ties with European nations.
The Irish came to the U.S. in the late 19th century
Compare and contrast the attitudes of three of the following toward the wealth that was created in the US during the late 19th century?
3. Compare and contrast the attitudes of THREE of the following toward the wealth that was created in the US during the late nineteenth century.Rags to RichesBootstrap TheoryD…istribution of the Wealth Thesis: Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie, one of the most innovative and business savvy men of his time, was very influential in creating a new attitude towards wealth when he became one of the richest men in the world. • Began poor- worked his way to railroad steel producer • method called vertical integration, where he controlled all aspects of manufacturing from extracting raw materials to selling the finished product • created a mass production system that slashed traditional consumer prices and allowed him to become the world's largest industrial corporation • Homestead Strikes - showed Carnegie's attitude towards unionized labor and the cheap workforce • "The only noble use of surplus wealth, is this: that it be regarded as a sacred trust administered by its possessor for the highest good of the people" HE decides what to do with his money and what HE thinks is best for the people. o Might not actually help them- libraries but can't read, performance halls but cannot afford tickets, etc. Horatio Alger Horatio Alger was an author of books (dime novelist) that were used to inspire poor young men to become wealthy industrialists like Andrew Carnegie by endorsing the myth of Rags to Riches. • "Rags to Riches Myth" - emphasized the idea that if one was honest, hard working, and self disciplined, it was possible for anyone to be successful • Many of the lower class Americans and new immigrants accepted the idea • Alger's books read by many boys around the late 19th century to the early 20th century Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington had a very similar stance on creation of wealth. Like Carnegie and Alger, he believed that, once one established a good economic base, one could rise in society. • to fight segregation is pointless, concentrate on economic self help • Bootstrap Theory o develop black economic base and rights will follow o first task of America's blacks must be to acquire useful skills such as farming and carpentry o Once blacks proved their economic value, racism would fade. • Tuskegee Institute- vocational training, allow blacks to gain knowledge for jobs they can have instead of formal education like math and literature
early 19th century
Poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests.
were subject to anti-immigrant prejudice
Blacks in the South were restricted from voting because they were likely to be beaten or fired if the even tried to register. Sometimes, they were made to take tests that they… could not complete or made to pay a poll tax that they could not afford.
blacklists and yellow-dog contracts
* Hours: The factory workers began their day at 4:00a.m., and it ended at 7:30 p.m. They were allowed one break at 7:30 a.m. for breakfast, and another at noon for lunch. …* Conditions: o Factories often had no windows to allow for ventilation, or heating systems to help the workers stay warm in the winter. o Poor lighting led to accidents. o Workers hands and arms were crushed by machines, because there were no safety devices on them. o Textile workers got lung diseases from breathing dust and fiber all day. o Steel workers risked injuries working close to red-hot vats of melted steel. o In mines, cave-ins buried miners alive. o If a worker got hurt, they got fired. o There was no such thing as insurance." Source(s):
Decline of cotton spinning at home.
During the late 19th century, one practice used by employers against workers was blacklisting. Another practice was yellow-dog contracts.