Why did US President Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation?
The final Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863. The earlier one was issued in the Fall of 1862 as a warning to the Southern states. The Emancipation Proclamation was a war measure to damage the economy and social structure of the Confederacy. In itself it freed no slaves as he had no control over Southern states. Additionally, the Proclamation had no effect on slave states that remained in the Union.
It was issued on January 1, 1863
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The first answer to my edit is based on sound reasoning.This edit will supplement what has already been written. The Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln was a str…ategicmove to serve the his main purpose for fighting the Civil War.Lincoln always believed that the Federal Government had no right,under the US Constitution to outlaw slavery. He tried to assure theSouth before he took office that he had no intention to abolishslavery where it already existed. As history has shown us, thismade no impact on the leaders of the South. They were concernedabout Lincoln's motives and they were concerned that the Southern"slave" States would eventually be a huge minority ofStates that had legal slaves. To fully gauge the impact, the later results, and reasons for the Emancipation Proclamation the following information isimportant: A . In 1865 Lincoln ratified the 13th Amendment tothe US Constitution which outlawed slavery; B . Many freed slaves and the peoples ofAfro-American society would continue to experience limited freedoms& prejudice. Many of these issues took almost 100 years to beresolved; C . Based on Lincoln's earlier stated ideasregarding slavery, the emancipation of slaves was not the firstreason that Lincoln engaged the Union in the Civil War. In fact, heeven saw it as a potential threat to the goal of keeping the Unionunified. (note. as an aside, the concept of manifestdestiny, already in the minds of many leaders, would be thwarted bythe secession. ) D . In truth, Lincoln was a pragmatist and a man ofmoderation. No one , who could see thatover 600,000 men would be killed, that the War would take over 4years to settle, added to the massive destruction, and bitter eddivisiveness over decades, could have wanted such a war.Somehow, someway, the slavery issue would have had to be solvedwithout the costs of this Civil War. E . To the horror of the Abolitionists, it wouldbecome clear that abolishing slavery was not why the Union couldfield large armies of young men whose call to duty was to save theUnion. Most Northerners were against slavery. There is no doubtabout that, however they were not going to war, a war that woulddestroy so many families, to end slavery. F . Lincoln believed that turning the war into anabolitionist crusade, might result in North en Democrats &border State Unionists to withdraw their support. G. And, once again, Lincoln did not believe he hadany authority to free anyone's "slaves". He even hoped that if theSouth thought that a compromise of sorts could be worked out, theSouth would return to the Union. Lincoln ignored critics wouldfound it absurd that the South would give in if the North had thepossibility of making the reunified Union, slave free. Thecritics would have to ignore the fact that prior to andduring the upcoming war, the Federal Capital itself had legalslavery. H . During the early stages of the War, Uniongenerals wielded their military powers to undermine slavery.Lincoln reversed their actions of freeing slaves in someTerritories, and even removed these generals. I . The War began in April 1861, and the fightingcontinued with both sides losing men. With the power and hugemilitary advantages of the Union, this was not expected in mostquarters of the North. Lincoln saw the problems a longer thanexpected war would bring. J . In defiance of his own ideas, the pragmaticside of Lincoln knew he needed another reason to continue the war.He hoped that adding a popular, moral attachment to the war mightprove to be a favorable tactic. His hope was that an emancipationwould encourage a deeper commitment to victory and he had nothingto lose except his own integrity. He could place that aside ifemancipation could help end the War ( it didn't in real terms andthe idea that the despotic and quasi democratic Europeans wouldside with the United States & not recognize the Confederacy wasa "hope". (More on this later. ) K . Lincoln also hoped that emancipation wouldgenerate international support and deny the Confederacy of possibleEuropean allies. It was reasoned that no external power would wantto be allied with a nation fighting for Slavery. Freeing the slaveswould hurt the Southern economy and thus weaken its militarystrength. Also, Lincoln saw a new source of manpower, the freedslaves, joining the military. L. The War dragged on and as the Summer of 1862was upon the nation, Lincoln decided to issue the emancipation asan act of justice and a military edict to help end the War. As nowthe pragmatic politician, the timing of such an announcement was ofmost importance At all costs the emancipation could not appear as adesperate measure. It might have, as the Union had suffered anumber of defeats against a "put together at the lastmoment army of the South". He announced it to his cabinet in July, 1862. Luckily when thehorrible battle of Antietam was over in September & the Southwithdrew from Maryland, this was the chance as Lee's retreat,i f you will, could be seen as a Northern victory. Inmilitary terms it was a tactical draw. When an attacking army losesless men than the defenders, it's the reverse of a natural battle. If it was a Union victory, & McClellan was praised for pressingthe attack on Lee's army, which McClellan did, it did not save hisjob. George B. McClellan lost his job as leader of the Army of thePotomac on November 3, 1862. M. Antietam is said by some historians as the end of theConfederacy's bid for recognition from Europe. In my view, Europeangovernments had no intention of recognizing the Confederacy. Theyhad little to gain. Many astute European statesman and military mensaw the potential of the United States. Many saw it as a rival"power to be". However, it was not lost on them that a successful new group of "Americans" could result in "two new powers to be". The Europeans had outlawed slavery long before the US Civil War.That's true enough, but they did not outlaw enslaving entirepopulations in their colonial empires. France "engineered" theconstruction of The Suez Canal as example with the use of"forced labor" in 1869. At any given point in time, 30,000laborers by force were involved in the construction. Thousands ofthem died. Most political scientists mark 1928 as the year Great Britainattained the same civil rights status as the United States. N . On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued hispreliminary Emancipation Proclamation. He took great care to makeit clear that it was an executive order allowed to him as theCommander in Chief under the Constitution. Because of that, theproclamation allowed for the liberation of slaves only in areasthat were in rebellion and thus under martial law. Bottom line wasthat slaves were liberated in areas where the Federal Governmenthad no power. Lee's retreat out of Maryland ( a Union slave State ) promptedLincoln to call for the surrender of the Confederacy and for itsStates to rejoin the Union by December 31, 1862. If that didn'thappen then their slaves would be declared free men. Based on theexample of Maryland, it needs to be again said that Lincoln, personally against slavery, was not as Presidentimplacable opposed to slavery; his avowed purpose wasalways to preserve the Union no matter it took to do so. So whetherby preserving slavery, destroying it, or by keeping it in someStates and not in others, the Union had to be preserved. O. Lincoln's Final Emancipation Proclamation onJanuary 1, 1863 specifically listed those areas where slaves wereto be free. Slave owners who were loyal to the Union were exemptand allowed to keep their slaves. Based on the 1860 census, thismeant that over 800,000 slaves or 21% of slaves were to remain in bondage. The "keep Europe out " plan wasridiculous in that the Union could have slaves but theareas not within Union control were not. P. The Proclamation was almost as controversial asthe suspension of US Civil Rights. It caused political disputes inthe North and among the rank and file of the US Army. It was earlyon that Lincoln in the interest of national security had suspendedcivil liberties in the Union. The suspension of habeas corpusresulted in the summary arrests which imprisoned thousands ofFederal citizens. Some were forced to take loyalty oaths and simple economic rightswere also suspended. Some of the Federal "activities" were issuesnot settled until after the War. In tact below is the initial answer which has enough goodinformation worth keeping. He wanted to take control of the rebellion and after the battle ofAntietam, where the north won, he thought it was a good move to getre-elected. Also, by making that proclamation he made the war aboutslavery first and foremost. This ensured that Britain and Francewould not enter the war and aid the South....the people of Britainand France could not support a cause that supported slavery. To turn it into a war on slavery. He was hoping this would raise Northern morale (which it didn't) and keep the British from helping the Confederates (which it did).
The Southern reaction was ferocious. These states continued did notrespond after Lincoln issued this proclamation. The South also didnot respond to Lincoln's preliminary Emanc…ipation Proclamation.
he issued it in January 1st 1863
The dates of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation were on September 22, 1862 and the final one on January 1, 1863. To properly answer the question of "when did Lincoln issue h…is Emancipation Proclamation, some background information is necessary. This is also needed to see the context of the timing of it. * at the onset of the US Civil War, the emancipation of slaves was not the main objective of President Lincoln; * Lincoln saw that such a move as this was actually a deterrent and threat to his main goal of preserving the Union; * Lincoln was a pragmatist. He believed that turning the quest to end the Southern rebellion by making it an abolitionist issue might cause Northern Democrats and border State Unionists to withdraw their support; * Lincoln was also correct in his thinking that the US Constitution prevented him from freeing slaves; * Early on in the conflict, when Union generals used their military powers to "free slaves" in the Territories, Lincoln overruled them and in some circumstances he relieved them of their duties; * As the war dragged on, Lincoln began to believe that linking the rebellion to the cause of emancipation; * Lincoln saw that linking freedom for slaves would add a deeper and moral reason for aiding his objective of ending the rebellion; * Lincoln also saw that international support from Great Britain and France would be enhanced if he made abolishing of slavery part of the war effort; * Lincoln also expected to add to the Union's manpower for the war as slaves, and freed slaves in the North could be added to the Union's military forces; * During the Summer of 1862, decided to issue an emancipation proclamation as a means of acting "justly" to slaves and as a military measure that was needed to end the rebellion; * Lincoln realized the timing of such a move would be crucial. As long as the Union's attempts to end the rebellion continued to fail, an emancipation could be viewed as an act of desperation. As an embarrassing example of this was the failure to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, only one hundred miles away from Washington DC; * After the Battle of Antietam, which caused the Army of Northern Virginia to retreat back to Virginia, Lincoln saw his opportunity. Although the battle was a technical "draw" Lee was forced to retreat; * On September 22, 1862 Lincoln issued his "Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation; * He was careful to make it clear that this act was a necessary military measure required to end the Southern rebellion; and * Technically, this could not free any slaves in the rebellious States. In addition, where slavery existed in States loyal to the Union, and in Washington DC, no slaves were freed.
The proclamation freed up resources for the North. It freed no actual slaves, but did allow the North to turn the issue of the civil war into a war against slavery instead of …a war against state rights. This stopped the plans of some countries which were sympathetic to the South's cause from aiding them in the war effort.
Abraham Lincoln on 1 January 1863
the focus of the war was shifted!
Britain and France had to stay out of the war - they could not send aid to the Confederates without looking pro-slavery.
It meant that Britain and France had to give up their plans to help the Confederates. The war had now been turned into an official crusade against slavery, and those two free …nations could not be seen to fight for slavery.
Freed all the slaves in the Confederate States.
It was after the rather lucky Union win at Antietam (Sharpsburg) in September 1862, which gave Lincoln the chance to issue the Proclamation without making it sound like a desp…erate measure.
In Emancipation Proclamation
The proclamation was first published September 22, 1862 and issued January 1, 1863.
In US Civil War
Britain and France were close to granting recognition to the Confederacy, and Lincoln had to turn the war into an official crusade against slavery, to shame them out of doing …this. His tactic was totally successful. Europe had to stay out of it.
In US Civil War
The British had to give up their plans to grant recognition to the Confederacy and send military aid, for fear of looking pro-slavery.
In US Civil War
There were essentially two factors which motivated President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. In the first place, he did not believe that the practice of slaver…y was morally justifiable (Lincoln was, of course, correct in that belief). Secondly, a civil war was in progress and it was very useful from a military point of view to be able to recruit former slaves into the Union Army, and by promising to end slavery, Lincoln gave the former slaves an excellent reason to support the Union.
In US Civil War
It kept the British and French from sending aid to the Confederacy - it would have made them look pro-slavery themselves.