US Civil War

This category is for questions and answers about the American Civil War. This was an internal conflict involving the state rights, and divided the United States in a bloody struggle. It was fought after the secession of eleven southern states, and lasted from 1861 to 1865.

102,752 Questions
History, Politics & Society
US Civil War
Confederate States of America

What advantages did the South and North have in the US Civil War?

The South had two major disadvantages in the US Civil War. One was that their troop strength could never match that of the Union's , The North had over 23 million people compared to 11 million in the South. Also, the North's manufacturing capability could not be matched by the cropland economy of the South. These Confederate disadvantages were the advantages of the North.

History, Politics & Society
US Civil War
War and Military History

What advantage did the South have over the North during the Civil War?

It would be more nearly correct to state that the military leaders of the South were far superior to those of the North. General Winfield Scott had offered command of Union forces to Robert E. Lee, who declined because his conscience would not let him fight against his native Virginia.

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US Civil War
War and Military History

What caused the US Civil War?


The primary reason for the Civil War was the issue of slavery, more importantly the economic value it had to the South. The secession act of South Carolina specifically mentions that the North wanted to take away the property (slaves) of the South.

The North's economy was not dependent on slavery and did not see the existence of the "peculiar institution" as the South did. However, it is important to remember that by no means was every Northerner an abolitionist; in fact, the racism and anti-African American sentiment sometimes surpassed that of the South in US history.

The US Supreme Court had ruled in several cases that slavery was legal in the USA. Lincoln had no intention to stop slavery in the South. He said that many times. The problem the South had was that they believed Lincoln would do all he could to prevent slavery from expanding into territories that would eventually become States.


Why did the southern states want to secede? Because they felt that they should have powerful states rights and a less powerful central government (one that might remove slavery and otherwise dominate the South's economy). The Crittenden-Johnston Resolution stated that the war was being fought not to interfere with the southern way of life, but to keep the union together. This was Lincoln's justification to militarily end secession.

Another economic point was the issue of tariffs, an issue that goes back the the Jackson era. The South hated the tariffs because it hurt their economy, while Northern merchants loved them because they protected their industries.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln wasn't exactly liked by the South, given that he didn't even show up on the ballot in a couple states in the South. Lincoln claimed that any man who supported secession would be convicted of treason. The South claimed that secession was a Constitutional right when the government failed to support the interests of the people. Although Lincoln said he wasn't going to emancipate the slaves in his inaugural, South Carolina succeeded shortly after Lincoln became president. The South went to war to protect their rights. It had NOTHING to do with slavery.

No Slavery in the West

The fights over the status of slavery in the western territories were a harbinger to the future Civil War. The events like the admission of Missouri resulting in the Missouri Compromise and the admission of Kansas/Nebraska resulting in the Compromise of 1850 were only concessions that prolonged the Civil War. Additionally, these events over the balance of slave/free states would split the political parties. Although they temporarily abated the difference between the insatiability of the South for slavery and the desire for industry in the North, it was only a matter of time before the lines between the slave/free states became the Mason-Dixon line.


The Civil War was not fought because of slavery. Slavery only became an issue after the Emancipation Proclamation, although some people in the North were pushing for war to stop slavery. The war was fought because the North did not think that the Southern states were allowed to secede.


The US Civil War was the largest war for America, then and even to a degree looking forward from 1865 onwards. The answer to the cause of the war is as large as the war itself. The best way to answer this question is with this statement. The US Civil War was the result of Southern slave states believing that their way of life, slavery, and its economics were becoming marginalized. Marginalized to such a degree that independence from the United States was the best chance for the South to thrive. The American Civil War had many causes. Some include economic differences between the North and the South, states rights versus federal rights, and of course whether or not slaves should be legal.
1. abolition of slavery

US Civil War
African-American History

Why was the Dred Scott decision important?

The Dred Scott decision effectively ended the Missouri Compromise, hardening the political rivalry between North and South and paving the way for the Civil War.

It determined slaves were not citizens of either their state of residence or the US, and therefore couldn't bring suit against their "owners" in court. According to Chief Justice Roger Taney, slaves were property, not humans.

The Supreme Court's ruling resulted in major violence, stirring the deep‐seated emotions in the already heated battle of race relations in the United States.

The Dred Scott case played a major role in precipitating the Civil War. The Supreme Court's ruling resulted in major violence, stirring the deep‐seated emotions in the already heated battle of race relations in the United States.

In a 7-2 ruling, the US Supreme Court held the following:

  • African-Americans could never be citizens of the United States or the individual states.
  • African-Americans were chattel (property) according to the Constitution, and their owners were protected from losing their property under the Fifth Amendment Takings Clause and Due Process Clause, which invalidated the "once free, always free" tradition.
  • Because African-Americans were considered property, and were not legal citizens, they had no right to sue for their freedom.
  • The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because Congress had overstepped its authority in attempting to regulate states' rights.
  • Citizens' groups were prohibited from establishing anti-slavery territories.

Case Citation:

Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 US 393 (1857)

For more information, see Related Links, below.

History of the United States
US Civil War
The Great Depression

How did the role of the federal government in US citizens lives change during the period of Reconstruction?

The major effect of the Great Depression and the New Deal on America was expanded government intervention into new areas of social and economic affairs and the creation of more social assistance agencies at the national level. The relationship between the national government and the people changed drastically. The government took on a greater role in the everyday social and economic lives of the people. The New Deal programs of FDR also created a liberal political alliance made up of labor unions, blacks and other ethnic and religious minorities, intellectuals, the poor, and some farmers. These groups became the backbone of the Democratic Party for decades following the Depression. As the federal government grew with new agencies and reform attempts, the cost of government increased. The grow of the government continued following the New Deal.

The Great Depression and the New Deal measure led to the domestic programs of JFK's New Frontier, and LBJ's Great Society and War on Poverty. The New Deal measures have also an influence on the current Obama administration, in its attempts to stimulate the economy.

The reconstruction took power away from the States and put them in the hands of s central government. The Nation was based on the States rights and having sovereignty FROM the Federal Government. The Federal Government was initially formed to act as a meeting place and body for the States to come together and make law. That has all changed. States Rights no longer supersede Federal rights. In our country today, Federal Law is the law of the land. This country can only be run by the citizens of the individual states, That was why the Senate and Congress were set up, So each state was represented in the Federal Government. When new federal programs took the lead, the state became the pawns of Big Government and now, if a State does not comply with Federal Law or recommendations, they are penalized by the Federal Government.

US Civil War
US Presidents
Abraham Lincoln

When was Abraham Lincoln born?

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809.
President Abraham Lincoln was born on Feb. 12, 1809.
for the first time in my lif e i know the answer okaiie ready here it is abrham Lincoln was born on the 12th of February 1802 and freed all the blacks from slavery

Business & Finance
US Civil War
History of the United States
US Civil War Battles

What side was the confederate army on north or south?

The Confederates were the south.

The Union were the north.

US Civil War

How did soldiers from the civil war fight boredom?

The usual - drinking, gambling, fighting.

Confederate troops under Magruder were allowed musical and theatrical entertianments.

Union troops under Joe Hooker were allowed so-called 'Horizontal Refreshment'.

US Civil War

How many people died in the US Civil War?

The American Civil War was one of the deadliest wars in American History. As many as 620,000 individuals lost their lives during the Civil War, more than in any other war before or since.

Confederate deaths were about 260,000 of which 93,000 were killed in combat, while Union deaths were 360,000 of which 110,000 deaths were in combat. Disease was the major cause of death in the civil war. Out of 620,000 deaths, over 400,000 were from diseases.

In total deaths the American Civil War was the deadliest war in American history (although in combat related deaths, World War II remains the deadliest conflict with 292,000 combat deaths).

Union Casualties : 110,000 killed in action

360,000 total dead

275,200 wounded

Confederate Casualties :93,000 killed in action

260,000 total dead

137,000 wounded

All said, some 635,200 Union soldiers were killed or wounded, and 397,000 Confederates were killed or wounded.

US Civil War
History of the United States
War and Military History

Name one problem that lead to the civil war?

The well-meant attempt to put the slavery question to a local vote in each new state.

When they tried it in Kansas, the voters were intimidated by mounted terrorists from outside the state.

This demonstrated that the slavery question was likely to spark a war.

History, Politics & Society
US Civil War

What was the purpose of the US Sanitary Commission?

to improve sanitary conditions for soldiers. They set up hospitals trains and ships to move wounded soldiers from the battlefield

US Civil War
Airplanes and Aircraft

What are major threats to civil aviation?

Physical threats? (1) Birds, (2) people who aim laser beams at cockpit windshields (a big problem at Dallas-Fort Worth International), (3) unruly passengers, and (4) terrorists.

-Bigger Al

shoddy outsourced maintenance and inexperienced and under trained and paid pilots

US Civil War

Most important southern crop in the 1840s and 1850s?

The economy of the south depended on cotton, which was the largest export of the United States. Tobacco was the #2 crop in most of the south.

US Civil War
Synonyms and Antonyms
Adjectives and Articles

What is the opposite of a Pyrrhic victory?

Since a Pyrrhic victory is defined as a "victory with devastating cost to the victor", the opposite can either of two things; "a loss with devastating cost to the victor" (in which the perspective is opposed to the Pyrrhic Victory) or "a victory with devastating cost to the loser".

In the case of the former, one could say that this is exactly the same as a Pyrrhic victory, but seen from the losing side. This is comparable to a 'heroic failure'.

In the case of the latter, one could say this is a 'massacre', in which the victor sustains no significant loss, but the losing side taking massive losses.

US Civil War
History, Politics & Society
History of China

Who led China's communist revolt?

Mao Tse Tung (Mao Zedong) in 1949.


The above answer is the year in which Mao Tse Tung was the leader of China when it became a comminist country. The date was October 1, 1949.

Mao had had a long history with the Chinese communist party. Most historians have said that he took over the leadership of the Party in 1934. In that year he was the primary political & military leader of the Communist Party.

US Civil War
War and Military History

What is the Range of an old gatling gun?

400 to 600 yards, comparable to single-shot infantry rifles of the time.

Native American History
US Civil War

What Indian products did the Europeans trade for?

  • Besides spices and cotton textiles, gems and precious stones were traded
US Civil War
War and Military History
Battle of Shiloh

Who won the Battle of Shiloh?

The Battle of Shiloh was an early battle in the US Civil War. It gained fame because of the many soldiers who died in the battle. It was a two day battle and General Grant claimed the victory.

US Civil War
Mexican-American War

How did the outcome of the Mexican War affect the debate over the expansion of slavery?

Because the new state of California extended so far either side of the Missouri line that it could not fit the terms of the Missouri Compromise.

A new compromise had to be worked out, and this one did not last.

US Civil War

Where was naval activity particularly important during the Civil War?

Several areas. All along the southern seacoast the US Navy tried, throughout the war, to enforce a blockade, to prevent supplies from abroad getting in to the Confederacy, and to prevent the Confederates from exporting goods to raise cash. Southerners, mostly private individuals but some government efforts, responded by fitting out fast ships to run the blockade, to export goods and import needed supplies.

In the Civil War the "east" was the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic coast, and the "west" was the area between the Appalachians and the Mississippi. In the east the rivers run west to east, the the sea. This helped the Rebels, as the rivers made natural barriers behind which they could defend against the Yankees. In the west, the Rivers run north and south, and this provided a natural pathway for the Union to penetrate into southern territory. The riverine Naval War on western waters was very, very important to the eventual Union victory.

The Confederates had a small number of "commerce raiders". These were fairly large, fast ships, most bought in England. They belonged to the Confederate Navy, and roamed the oceans of the world capturing Yankee ships - mostly cargo ships. This activity tied up a large number of Union Navy ships, trying to hunt down and eliminate the Rebel commerce raiders. One famous naval battle of the war took place just off the coast of France, near Cherbourg, where the USS Kearsarge sank the CSS Alabama.

There was much fighting in or near several southern port cities, such as Charleston, South Carolina, Wilmington, North Carolina, and Mobile, Alabama. Ironclads of both sides were used. The Confederates made the first successful submarine attack in the world at Charleston, when the Hunley sank the USS Housatonic.

US Civil War
African-American History

How did former slaves react to freedom?

Many thought that it would be like heaven. But, while working as slaves they had no real idea of what freedom would be like.A free person from a less-developed, less-educated background, when captivated, wouldn't know what freedom meant.

However, after gaining their freedom, many migrated to the cities, looking for work. Others remained on the farms where they had been slaves, and received wages for the work they performed, using those wages to pay for food and clothing, etc. In many cases, their living conditions did not improve, and their work hours did not change.


The answer above is partially incorrect. Many slaves could not get employed and lived much worse lives than they did under a slaveholder. (Even if they did reach the north)

US Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation

How did the emancipation proclamation give union army more motivation?

It meant they would not have to face the British and French armies on the side of the Confederates.

Whether they also felt a new sense of moral mission is dubious. The mid-term elections did not seem to reflect this.

US Civil War
War and Military History
Confederate States of America

Is Tennessee a Confederate or Union state?

Tennessee was Confederate state. However the people of the state were divided and many joined the Union army. Its capital, Nashville, fell early to the Union advance but many big and important battles were fought in the state.

Many of the Union supporters in Tennessee were located in the eastern part of the state.

US Civil War
War and Military History

Which two armies fought the last battles of the Civil War?

The Union army under US Grant was meant to take care of Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia. It eventually succeeded - after the terrible siege of Petersburg, which was simply a slugging match, with Grant knowing that the Confederates could not replace their losses. The surrender came when Lee's lines were so stretched that they couldn't hold.

The other Union army under Sherman was meant to destroy the Army of Tennessee under Joe Johnston (replaced by John Hood). It did not succeed in doing this. But Sherman had worked out his new strategy of attacking the infrastructure that supported the Confederate armies - devastating the rich farmland of Georgia and South Carolina. There were not enough enemy troops to stop him, although the talented Joe Johnston had been brought back to command what few Confederate units remained in that area. They surrendered about two weeks after Lee.

The very last major engagement of Union and Confederate forces was the Battle of Palmito Ranch on May 12-13, 1865 between armies under the command of Union General Lew Wallace, and Confederate General John G. Walker, though neither general participated in the battle, and ended with a force of 300 Confederates defeating over 1700 Federals. Some historians, as well as, the Official Record of the Civil War consider this battle to be a post-war engagement, and the Battle of Columbus to be the true last battle. It is worth mentioning that the official record of any war is written by the winner of said war, in this case the Union, and has been suggested that Union officials refused to recognize a Confederate victory as the final battle, particularly when 1700 - 1900 Union troops were defeated by 300 - 400 Confederates.

The last official battle of the Civil War was the Battle of Columbus on the Georgia/Alabama border on April 16, 1865, 2 days after Lincoln was killed, between Union General James H. Wilson, and Confederate General Howell Cobb and ended in a Union victory.

On a side note: In the Battle of Columbus a Confederate soldier named John Pemberton was injured by the slash of a sabre, and it was this injury that led him to become a pharmacist after the war preoccupied with creating formulas for pain killers and ultimately leading to the invention of Coca-Cola.

Also of note: Lew Wallace from Palmito Ranch, later gained notoriety as the Governor of New Mexico that offered a full pardon to Billy the Kid, but later reneged because of political pressure, and became somewhat famous as author of what was considered "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century" Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ.

US Civil War
African-American History

What is the importance of freedman's bureau?



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