Can a home owners association file a lien against you for over due fees?
Maybe. If the homeowner's association (HOA) has written, recorded covenants and/or bylaws that require the payment of dues, liens can be filed for non-payment of those dues. The laws regarding HOA liens vary widely from state to state. I suggest that you see a real estate attorney in your area to discuss your particular situation. Or, better yet, try to work out a payment plan with the HOA. That will save you and the HOA a great deal of stress and money.
Read your governing documents to understand your obligation to pay your monthly assessments. Since assessments pay for services to property you own in common with your neighbors, such as master insurance policy premiums, reserve funds and basic utilities, when you don't pay your assessments, you essential ask your neighbors to pay your bills.
If you are obligated to pay your assessments, the association can not only file a lien to collect the debt you owe, it may be able to sell your unit to satisfy the debt.