Can an individual receive some type of payment from the government for being of Indian descent?

No. There are no government funds that pays individuals based on Native American descent. If you are a member of a Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) recognized Tribal Affiliation you are eligible for health and education benefits. The Department of Interior (DOI) has a web site that may help with what Tribes are located near you. Identify what Tribe is in your lineage and contact that Tribe about any assistance available to you.