Can you catch a disease called toxicara from dog feces?

Yes, you can contract an infection with Toxocara from dog feces.

Toxocara is a species of roundworm and it causes serious health issues in humans each year. As the parasite migrates through the body of the aberrant host (humans) it damages the organs that is passes through--liver, eye and brain are typical sites for damage. This parasite's eggs can remain viable in the environment for 10 years or longer, so it is very important that dog feces (and cat feces) be cleaned up immediately to help prevent environmental contamination with the eggs of this roundworm. This is an extremely common parasite in puppies and is dangerous to the pup as well as to humans, thus the recommendations for frequent deworming starting as early as 2 weeks of age for puppies.