Between 1919 and 1924, the Khilafat Movement in British-controlled India was a political protest movement. It was pan-Islamic and aimed to protect the Ottoman Empire and also remove the British influence in India.
Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a significant Islamic movement in India during the British rule. This was an attempt by the Indian Muslim community to unite together in support of the Turkish Empire ruled by the Khalifa, which was attacked by European powers. The Muslims considered the Khalifa as the custodian of Islam. They simply could not digest his dethronement. Under the leadership of prominent Muslim leaders, notable one being Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, they launched the Khilafat Movement in most parts of North India. The Khilafat Movement, aimed against the British government, received the support of Mahatma Gandhi, who related hisNon Cooperation Movement with it. The main objective behind this move was to enlist the support of the Muslim community into his movement, which addressed the issue of 'Swaraj' (Self-Government). By mid-1920 the Khilafat leaders assured full support to the non-violent methods of Gandhi, which facilitated the establishment of a united front of Hindus and Muslims against the British government. This combined force formed a major threat to the British rule. The Khilafat Movement however did not last long. Owing to some violent incidents in the country which resulted in the deaths of many Indian and British people, Mahatma Gandhi called off his Non Cooperation Movement. This was a major jolt to the Khilafat Movement. The movement received its final blow in March 1924, when the original Khilafat movement in Turkey was abolished following the Islamic country's conversion from a Sultanate empire to a Republic BY OSAMA TANVEER
Background:After the First World War in 1918, British and its allied powers decided to divide Turkey among themselves. Turkey supported Germany in the First World War. Germany lost the war and Turkey had to face the music. British and its allies also resolved to dissolve the designation of Khilafat. The designation of Khilafat always remained holy and sacred in the Muslim history. Khalifa is considered the vicegerent of Allah on the Earth. Therefore, the Muslims became infuriated on this unholy act of the British government. Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar and Maulana Shaukat Ali Johar along with other Muslim leaders started a movement called the Khilafat movement.Aims And Objectives Of The Khilafat Movement:The Khilafat Movement aimed at presenting the Ottoman Empire and the continuity of the temporal power of Khalifa to protect Muslim lands without any mandate. Mohammad Ali put forward the demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring:“The Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the KhalifaShall have sufficient temporal power for the defence of theFaith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive,Muslim control without mandate or protection and that theKhalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of theHoly places.”Demands Of The Khilafat Movement:The demands of the Khilafat committee were as under:i) The Turkish Empire should not be dismembered.ii) The Holy place should remain in the custody of Turkish Government.iii) The institution of Caliphate must be retained.Causes Of The Failure Of Khilafat Movement:Gandhi also joined Muslims in their Khilafat Movement. In fact, he wants to protect the British government and needed autonomy of India through this movement. Therefore, he joined the Khilafat Movement for achieving his coveted plan. Apparently, he was showing that he was sincere to the Muslim cause.Quaid-e-Azam admonished the Muslims that this movement should not be started but Muslims were not listening to him.Non-cooperation movement, Hijrat movement, Moplah revolt and the Chauri Chaura tragedy did a great loss to Muslim properties, wealth and lives.After the tragedy of Chauri Chaura, Gandhi left the Khilafat movement saying that he did not like violence.After Hijrat Movement, the Muslims had to come back to the Sub-continent but now they had lost their hearth and home. They had to face the severe circumstances in the Khilafat movement.In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk assumed power in Turkey and abolished the institution of Khilafat himself lf. This act of him really disappointed Muslims. Thus the Khilafat Movement came to an end without achieving its goals.Effects Of Khilafat Movement:i) The Credit Side Of Khilafat Movement:• It trained Muslims for political action and agitation.• It united the extremists and modernists on one platform.• They learned that Hindus can never be friends of Muslims. Their differences are too deep-rooted to weed out.• The Muslims got acquainted of their political power.• It made Muslims politically conscious.• It destroyed the myth of Muslims loyalty to the British.ii) Adverse Side Of Khilafat Movement:• Muslims became more interested in national affairs than international one.• Hijrat movement cost millions of rupees and millions of families.• Muslim emotionalism gave nothing to them. Khilafat was abolished not by British but by Turks themselves.• Religious leaders for the time being vanished from political arena.Conclusion:Every movement against the British rule left its good as well as bad effects on the people. After Khilafat Movement Muslims of the Sub-continent become united, strong and conscious about their separate identity which led them towards final destination. This was the real credit which Muslims derived from Khilafat Movement.
1919 has in it self no signifiance in Islam. Islam does not believe in bad luch or the unlucky numbers such as 13 unlike some other cultures and religions. But 1919 as a year does has some significance as it was The Khilafat Movement from 1919 to 1924.
The Khilafat movement (1919--1924) was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920).
The Khilafat movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and gave Greece a powerful position in Anatolia, to the distress of the Turks. They called for help and the movement was the result. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favorable diplomatic position; by 1924 it simply abolished the roles of sultan and Calif.In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920)
Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a Pan-Islamic movement influenced by Indian nationalism. The Ottoman Emperor Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909) had launched a Pan-Islamic programme to use his position as the Sultan-Khalifa of the global Muslim community with a view to saving his disintegrating empire from foreign attacks and to crush the nationalistic democratic movement at home. The visit of his emissary, Jamaluddin Afghani, to India in the late nineteenth century to propagate Pan-Islamic ideas received a favorable response from some Indian Muslim leaders.These sentiments intensified early in the twentieth century with the revocation in 1911 of the 1905 partition of Bengal, the Italian (1911) and Balkan (1911-1912) attacks on Turkey, and Great Britain 's participation in the First World War (1914-18) against Turkey.The defeat of Turkey in the First World War and the division of its territories under the Treaty of Sevres (10 August 1920) among European powers caused apprehensions in India over the Khalifa 's custodianship of the Holy places of Islam. Accordingly, the Khilafat Movement was launched in September 1919 as an orthodox communal movement to protect the Turkish Khalifa and save his empire from dismemberment by Great Britain and other European powers. The Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shawkat Ali, Maulana abul kalam azad, Dr MA Ansari, and Hasrat Mohani initiated the Movement. Khilafat Conferences were organised in several cities in northern India. A Central Khilafat Committee, with provisions for provincial branches, was constituted at Bombay with Seth Chotani, a wealthy merchant, as its President, and Shawkat Ali as its Secretary. In 1920 the Ali Brothers produced the Khilafat Manifesto. The Central Khilafat Committee started a Fund to help the Nationalist Movement in Turkey and to organise the Khilafat Movement at home.
National Minority Movement was created in 1924.
Legality Movement Party was created in 1924.
It started in 1924.
National Socialist Freedom Movement was created in 1924.
Peasant Movement Training Institute at Guangzhou was created in 1924.
Yes. He got arrested in April1 1924 for a failed attempt to take over Germany.
Surrealism started out as an art movement in 1924, but really it developed from Dadaism.
the pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis war of the second century occured in Russia in 1924 because Russia and Grece wanted to have their own flags which failed for both of them. they all didnt do good and thats why this conflict happened.
The surrealist manifesto was written by Andre Breton in 1924 and outlined the aims and objectives of the surrealist movement.
From 1924 (André Breton's Surrealist Manifesto). You might find surrealistcally influenced painters even today, but as a movement it lasted less than 10 years.
When the British Parliament passed the Education Act some years ago, the Non-conformists offered passive resistance under the leadership of Dr. Clifford.
It is the model number of the movement. The Grade 384 was made from 1910 to about 1924, and had 17 jewels and was usually adjusted.
SurrealismBiographies of well known surrealists ... Surrealism is a cultural movement and artistic style that was founded in 1924 by André Breton.www.surrealism.org - Cached
3 years 6 months 45 days Hitler was Sentenced on April 1 1924 for High Treason and was released in December of the same year He took part in the failed Beer Hall Putsch, which was a failed attempt at revolution in Munich.
. As a movement it all started in 1924. Leading surrealists as Dalí and Miró went on painting in this spirit for the rest of their lives, i.e. until the 1980s.
The Avenger - 1924 was released on: USA: January 1924
Baffled - 1924 was released on: USA: February 1924
Westbound - 1924 I was released on: USA: January 1924