Do you need a lawyer to file a claim on home owners insurance?

No, If you are the insured and you have suffered a loss all you do is call your insurer and file a loss notice. If the loss is covered under the terms of your policy then your company will repair your damages.

If you are talking about a disagreement with a claim that your company denied due to no coverage then you might seek the advice of an attorney, But just to file a claim no, you should not need an attorney.

Remember that if it is your insurance policy then you are the insured. So to sue the company might require that you sue yourself, which is not possible.