How can you eliminate a hydrogen sulfide odor in the water from a new hot water heater even after the anode has been replaced with an aluminum one?

You need to replace the aluminum anode with a zinc/aluminum alloy anode.

ANS 2 - If a hydrogen sulfide (or rotten egg) odour exists around your water, it's often an indicator of excess iron in the water supply. This can be bad for your plumbing. I would advise taking a water sample(in a sterilised bottle) to a lab and have it analysed. If the iron content is very high you may well have to fit a softener or an iron filter.

BTW - changing the anode is an excellent idea anyway. Just may not be the solution.