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How does an amino acid become a polypeptide?

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2008-09-03 03:53:21
2008-09-03 03:53:21

Reactions As amino acids have both a primary amine group and a primary carboxyl group, these chemicals can undergo most of the reactions associated with these functional groups. These include nucleophilic addition, amide bond formation and imine formation for the amine group and esterification, amide bond formation and decarboxylation for the carboxylic acid group. The multiple side chains of amino acids can also undergo chemical reactions. The types of these reactions are determined by the groups on these side chains and are discussed in the articles dealing with each specific type of amino acid. The condensation of two amino acids to form a peptide bond.

: For more details on this topic, see Peptide bond. As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage. This polymerization of amino acids is what creates proteins. This condensation reaction yields the newly formed peptide bond and a molecule of water. In cells, this reaction does not occur directly; instead the amino acid is first activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. This aminoacyl-tRNA is produced in an ATP-dependent reaction carried out by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.[11] This aminoacyl-tRNA is then a substrate for the ribosome, which catalyzes the attack of the amino group of the elongating protein chain on the ester bond.[12] As a result of this mechanism, all proteins made by ribosomes are synthesized starting at their N-terminus and moving towards their C-terminus. However, not all peptide bonds are formed in this way. In a few cases, peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. For example, the tripeptide glutathione is an essential part of the defenses of cells against oxidative stress. This peptide is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids.[13] In the first step gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase condenses cysteine and glutamic acid through a peptide bond formed between the side-chain carboxyl of the glutamate (the gamma carbon of this side chain) and the amino group of the cysteine. This dipeptide is then condensed with glycine by glutathione synthetase to form glutathione.[14] In chemistry, peptides are synthesized by a variety of reactions. One of the most used in solid-phase peptide synthesis, which uses the aromatic oxime derivatives of amino acids as activated units. These are added in sequence onto the growing peptide chain, which is attached to a solid resin support.[15 Reactions As amino acids have both a primary amine group and a primary carboxyl group, these chemicals can undergo most of the reactions associated with these functional groups. These include nucleophilic addition, amide bond formation and imine formation for the amine group and esterification, amide bond formation and decarboxylation for the carboxylic acid group. The multiple side chains of amino acids can also undergo chemical reactions. The types of these reactions are determined by the groups on these side chains and are discussed in the articles dealing with each specific type of amino acid. The condensation of two amino acids to form a peptide bond.

: For more details on this topic, see Peptide bond. As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage. This polymerization of amino acids is what creates proteins. This condensation reaction yields the newly formed peptide bond and a molecule of water. In cells, this reaction does not occur directly; instead the amino acid is first activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. This aminoacyl-tRNA is produced in an ATP-dependent reaction carried out by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.[11] This aminoacyl-tRNA is then a substrate for the ribosome, which catalyzes the attack of the amino group of the elongating protein chain on the ester bond.[12] As a result of this mechanism, all proteins made by ribosomes are synthesized starting at their N-terminus and moving towards their C-terminus. However, not all peptide bonds are formed in this way. In a few cases, peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. For example, the tripeptide glutathione is an essential part of the defenses of cells against oxidative stress. This peptide is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids.[13] In the first step gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase condenses cysteine and glutamic acid through a peptide bond formed between the side-chain carboxyl of the glutamate (the gamma carbon of this side chain) and the amino group of the cysteine. This dipeptide is then condensed with glycine by glutathione synthetase to form glutathione.[14] In chemistry, peptides are synthesized by a variety of reactions. One of the most used in solid-phase peptide synthesis, which uses the aromatic oxime derivatives of amino acids as activated units. These are added in sequence onto the growing peptide chain, which is attached to a solid resin support.[15

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Polypeptide is a part of an amino acid. Check out -> Deamination.

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Dipeptide,amino acid,polypeptide,protein Amino Acid is the answer

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No, an amino acid is a monomer. A polymer made of amino acids is called a polypeptide or a protein.

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Alanine is not a polypeptide. It's an amino acid.

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A specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is called a gene.

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an amino acid is a monomer.. it joins together to form a dipeptide.. which joins together to form a polypeptide polypeptide - otherwise known as a polymer

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An amino acid links with another amino acid through a condensation reaction to form a peptide bond. This process continues until a polypeptide chain is formed.

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Polypeptide means proteins. It is a sequence of amino acids. Peptide are small polymers of amino acids. Polypeptides are bigger polymers of amino acids.

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Amino acid. This is because dipeptides and polypeptides are chains of amino acids. Amino acids are the monomers.

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Yes, glucagon is a polypeptide (protein) hormone. Polypeptides are polymers of amino acid monomers.

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Codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached.

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codon on the mrna and the anticodon on the trna to which the amino acid is attached

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Well a Polypeptide is used to bond together amino acid chains so my guess is no it is not organic.

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A polypeptide - also called an amino acid chain

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yes, it is made up of amino acid monomers

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Amino acid. (also its spelt polypeptide)


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