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# How error in binary data can be detected?

Error in a binary stream or object can be detected using Error detection techniques. (usually called EDC, or error detection and correction)

Errors can be detected in many ways, but they all involve adding some redundant data along with the original message. The process for calculation of these bits is repeated while checking, and if there is a match, the data is accepted, else it is rejected (which usually involves applying data correction, or request to resend the data)

Type of error detection are :

1. Block repetition : same data is repeated twice, and at the receiver's end, checked if they are exactly the same
2. Parity bits : a single bit is added after the sequence of certain number of data bits, to make the data's parity even or odd, depending upon the selection made.
3. Checksum : Mathematical formula involving all bits of the data is applied, obtained result is the redundant bit, which is added for detection. Receiver recalculates and then compares the data for detection.
4. CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) : another mathematical formula where all bits are used.
5. Hash functions : predetermined hash functions for calculating the error detection code Study guides

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