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2007-12-12 04:42:35
2007-12-12 04:42:35

Proto-oncogenes are genes whose products promote cell growth and division. They do this by encoding transcription factors that stimulate the expression of other genes, signal transduction molecules that stimulate cell division, or cell cycle regulators that move the ell through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogene products may be located in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or nucleus, and their activities are controlled in various ways, including regulation at the transcpritional, translational, and protein-modification levels. When cells become quiescent and cease division, they repress the expression of most proto-oncogene products. In cancer cells, one or more proto-oncogenes are altered in such a way that tier activities cannot be controlled in a normal fashion. This is sometimes due to a mutation in the proto-oncogene resulting in a protein product that acts abnormally. In other cases, proto-oncogenes may encode normal protein products, but the genes are overexpressed or cannot be transcriptionally repressed at the correct time. In these cases, the proto-oncogene product is continually in an "on" state, which may constantly stimulate the cell to divide. When a proto-oncogene is mutated or aberrantly expressed, and contributes to the development of cancer, it is known as an oncogene. Oncogenes are those that have experienced a gain-of-function alteration. As a result, only one allele of a proto-oncogene needs to be mutated or mis-expressed in order to trigger uncontrolled growth. Hence, oncogenes confer a dominant cancer phenotype.


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integrates their proviral DNA next to protooncogenes

Oncogenes regulate cell division, so if it is placed near an overly active gene, it may itself become overly active, thus causing cancer. Tumor suppressors suppress tumors and will only cause cancer if it stops its activity, contrary to oncogenes.

Oncogene is a gene which causes cancer.

Proto-oncogenes stop cells dividing too often. When a mutation occurs to proto-oncogenes this is when cancer can occur, as there is then no hay-flick limit (normally cells have a limit to how many times then can divide) cells are able to replicate uncontrollably.

Manjusri Das has written: 'Selected abstracts on oncogenes and epidermal growth factor receptors' -- subject(s): Abstracts, Tumors, Oncogenes, Epidermis

diethylstilbestrol No it is not! It is oncogenes!

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Movement of DNA within the genome, amplification of a proto-oncogene, and point mutations in a control element or in the proto-oncognene itself.

it is produced form animals, plants and factory.

a form of energy produced by the movement of molecules in matter

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Tumor suppressor and oncogenes are two very important types of genes, deeply involved in cancer. First a tumor suppressor gene, is a gene, that helps to prevent cancer, by coding for the self-desturction of a cell, when the cells are damaged or something malfunctions, they destroy the cell. These genes also help to repress the cell cycle and help it from running awry. On the other hand an oncogene, is a mutated proto-oncogene, these proto-oncogenes, are responsible for controlling the cell cycle and when they mutate into oncogenes, they code for the cell to divide at a far accelerated pace, leading to a cancerous tumor.

An oncogene is a modified gene, or a set of nucleotides that codes for a protein and is believed to cause cancer.

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Hyperthermia, Gene therapy, Experimental Drugs, oncogenes,etc.

Genes called proto-oncogenes stop a cell from dividing too often.

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when an excess of oxygen is used CO2 and water (in the form of steam) is produced but if a quantity too small for the reaction is used CO is produced and again water (in the form of steam!) i hope this helps :)

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