Is it true that in 1857 Pope Pius emasculated statues inside Vatican City?
In 1557, the fig leaves were instituted by the bull of Pope Paul IV (1555-1559), as well as creating a ghetto for Jews (Cum nimis absurdum) and in another (1555) declared that the Jews were without merit to receive protection (Cum ex apostolatus officio), and Index Librorum Prohibitorum or "Index of Prohibited Books" to crack down on Protestantism. His numerous "nephews" (many became cardinals) ran the Vatican and this nefarious Pontiff worked heartily at enriching his family (as did most Renaissance popes). Most of the fig leaves that we see were put in place on the personal initiative of Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) who, for reasons of his own, preferred metal leaves to the plaster ones. This Pope, to his credit, spared most of the art in the Vatican. Clement XIII (1758-1769) had the Vatican mass produce fig leaves for statues that still sported penises. By 1857, Pope Pius IX discovered that these few remaining statues constituted grave threat to the faithful and destroyed most of them; the fig leaves were promptly added by his successor to stop the iconoclasm. All in all, the campaign raged for 450 years and resulted in the destruction of Catholic visual art. What is strange to note, is in linguisitic theology, the fig leaf notes the fall of mortals from grace (as with "Adam" and "Eve" creating an "apron" to hide their nakedness) and a demonstration of shame (in the Middle Ages only the "damned" were naked; the "saved" were clothed).
As far as I can see there is no book with the title simply "1857", although there are a few with the words 1857 in the title; most refer to the Indian Revolt (uprising) against British rule in the year 1857. The Great Mutiny: India 1857 by Christopher Hibbert Of course there were also a number of books published in the year 1857. For a list of these please see the related links:
The 1857 Uprising (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny) began on 10 May 1857 as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army in the town of Meerut, some 70 km northeast of Delhi.
the revolt of 1857 was started by Indian soldiers at Meerut on 10 may,1857.the causes of the revolt were a) All sections of India were unhappy with the British rule. b) The Indian rulers who lost their territories were ready to fight. c) The dissatisfaction against the British finally got expression in the great revolt of 1857.