Popes

The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and is leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The Pope is also head of state of the Vatican City, a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved by Rome.

8,927 Questions
Catholicism
Popes

What are papal indulgences?

Catholic AnswerA papal indulgence is just an indulgence which has been granted by the Pope for the benefit of all the faithful. By the way, it is exactly the same thing now as it was five hundred years ago, except that there aren't as many available for alms.

from Radio Replies, by Fathers Rumble and Carty, 1942

994. I have heard Catholics speak of indulgences for the souls in purgatory? What are indulgences?

Do not mix up the ecclesiastical term indulgence with the modern idea of self-indulgence. An indulgence is not a permission to indulge in sin, but is a remission of punishment due to sin. Now in the early Christian Church certain sins were punished by long public penance, sometimes for days, at other times for years. But the Church was often indulgent, and loosed or freed Christians from all or part of their public penance, if they showed other good dispositions, or performed certain works of charity. The Church had that power in the name of God as surely as the state has the power in its own name to commute a sentence or even release a criminal altogether under certain circumstances. Christ said to the Church, "Whatsoever you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed in heaven." Matt. XVIII., 18. That the merits of Christ and of the Martyrs and Saints of the ages are at the disposal of the Church is also a consequence of the doctrine of the Communion of the Saints. And that power of commuting or even of remitting penances and expiations exists in the Church to-day, being exercised by the granting of indulgences.

995. What do you mean by an indulgence, say, of forty days?

An indulgence of forty days means that the Church liberates us from that amount of expiation of our sins which would be equal to a forty days' public penance in the early Church. It does not mean forty days less purgatory. Such an indulgence is called a partial indulgence.

997. Can indulgences be applied to the souls in purgatory?

Yes, but by God alone. We can but ask Him to accept indulgences on their behalf. But we can certainly offer them with a definite conviction of their normal acceptance by God for those we love, even as we can share our goods in this life with more needy friends. This too is implied by the doctrine of the Communion of Saints.

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Popes

What is the papal chair?

Every bishop has a chair, called a cathedra, which was traditional symbol of his teaching and leadership role. The church where the bishops cathedra is located is called a cathedral, and is the 'mother-church' of the diocese which that bishop serves.

The pope is the bishop of Rome, so his chair - his cathedra - is located in the cathedral of the diocese of Rome, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran. This was also the first church built in Rome.

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Latin to English

What does rerum cognoscere mean?

Translated from the Latin, it means "happy is he who knows". The phrase rerum cognoscere causas means "happy is he who knows the cause of things". This latter phrase is from Virgil's "Georgics" written in 29 B.C.

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Catholicism

What does the title SJ mean?

SJ is short for Society of Jesus, indicating membership in the religious order commonly known as Jesuits.

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Who do Catholics consider to be first pope?

The Apostle St. Peter was the first Bishop of Rome, and thus the first Pope of the Catholic Church. Peter was chosen to become a Vicar of Christ by Jesus with Jesus as the Head of the Catholic church.

There are many references to this in the Bible. Just a few examples would include:

- "And I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church" (Matt. 16:18). (Note: the word for Peter and Rock is the same.) (Christ was acknowledging Peter's recognition of Christ and upon this recognition would Christ build his church. Christ did not appoint Peter as his successor rather he sent the 12 apostles to teach the people and build the Church.)

- Jesus entrusted Peter with his flock, making him too a Good Shepherd (John 21:15-17).

- After his conversion Paul went to see Peter, the chief apostle (Gal. 1:18).

Also, before Peter went on to establish the Roman church (the Catholic Church), he was the Patriarch of Antioch.

Many denominations, not just Catholic, recognize that indeed Peter was the first Pope.*

Note that not all Christian denominations reach the same conclusion from the following passage of scripture

13 ¶ When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?

14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets.

15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?

16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.

17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.

18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

Another Opinion:

Firstly while holy scripture does not say that St. Peter was in Rome, it also does not say that he was not.

It is from the historical writings of the early church fathers that the Orthodox, Catholic,Anglican and Lutheran churches gain their belief that Peter was the first bishop of Rome and view him as being honored as the first among the apostles regardless of how they interpreted this supremacy.

St. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies" 3,1,1 180 A.D., J208

'...in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were evangelizing at Rome, and laying the foundations of the church'.

St. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", chapter III, '...the very ancient, and universally known church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also (by pointing out) the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops'.

Eusebius, "History of the Church", 2,14,6, 300 A.D., J651dd

'In the same reign of Claudius, the all-good and gracious providence which watches over all things guided Peter, the great and mighty one among the Apostles, who, because of his virtue, was the spokesman for all the others, to Rome'.

Tertullian, "The demurrer against the heretics", chapter XXXII,1,

'...like the church of the Romans where Clement was ordained by Peter'.

Saint Peter of Alexandria, "The Canonical Letter", canon 9, 306 A.D.

"Peter, the first chosen of the Apostles, having been apprehended often and thrown into prison and treated with ignominy, at last was crucified in Rome."

Eusebius, "The Chronicle" Ad An.Dom 68, J651cc

"Nero is the first, in addition to all his other crimes, to make a persecution against the Christians, in which Peter and Paul died gloriously in Rome."

Eusebius, "History of the Church", 3,2, 300 A.D., J652a

"After the martyrdom of Paul and Peter, Linus was the first appointed to the Episcopacy of the Church at Rome."

Lactantius, "Of the manner in which the persecutors died":

This letter is addressed to Donatus. It not only shows that Peter was actually in Rome, but that he died there also at the hands of Nero. Chapter II. "His apostles were at that time eleven in number, to whom were added Matthias, in the room of the traitor Judas, and afterward Paul. Then were they dispersed throughout all the earth to preach the Gospel, as the Lord their Master had commanded them; and during twenty-five years, and until the beginning of the reign of the Emperor Nero, they occupied themselves in laying the foundations of the Church in every province and city. And while Nero reigned, the Apostle Peter came to Rome, and, through the power of God committed unto him, wrought certain miracles, and, by turning many to the true religion, built up a faithful and steadfast temple unto the Lord. When Nero heard of those things, and observed that not only in Rome, but in every other place, a great multitude revolted daily from the worship of idols, and, condemning their old ways, went over to the new religion, he, an execrable and pernicious tyrant, sprung forward to raze the heavenly temple and destroy the true faith. He it was who first persecuted the servants of God; he crucified Peter, and slew Paul: nor did he escape with impunity; for God looked on the affliction of His people; and therefore the tyrant, bereaved of authority, and precipitated from the height of empire, suddenly disappeared, and even the burial-place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen."

Saint Damasus I, "The Decree of Damasus" 3, 382 A.D., J910u

"The first see, therefore, is that of Peter the Apostle, that of the Roman Church, which has neither stain nor blemish nor anything like it."

Saint Augustine, "Letter to Generosus", 53,1,2, 400 A.D., J1418

"If the very order of episcopal succession is to be considered, how much more surely, truly, and safely do we number them from Peter himself, to whom, as to one representing the whole Church, the Lord said: "Upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not conquer it."

The Holy Bible is the word of God and the foundation stone and bedrock of Christianity, however one must realize that it does not mention absolutely everything that happened in the spread of Christianity, why would it, does it help the Christian message at all to start talking about absolutely everything Peter did, of course not, there is simply too much information to go into the good book.

Another Opinion:

A BIBLICAL BASIS FOR PETER BEING THE FIRST POPE:

While it is believed to be a historical fact that Peter was the first bishop of Rome (what we now call pope)...here is Biblical proof that Peter was chosen by Christ to be the leader of the apostles and the leader of His church:

1)Matt. 16:17-19

Even if you don't agree that Jesus is referring to Peter as the rock on which he would build his church...in verse 19, Jesus gives Peter alone the keys to the kingdom of heaven and says that his decisions would be binding in heaven.

2)Luke 22:31-32

Jesus foretells Peter's denial and prays that Peter's faith would not fail and gives Peter the task of strengthening the other disciples.

3)John 21:15-17

After Christ's resurrection He asks Peter 3 times if he loves him (for the 3 times Peter had denied Him) and 3 times asks Peter to be the shepherd of His church.

4)Acts 2:14, 37 and 5:29

The book of Acts gives a few examples that show Peter in his role as leader by referring to the disciples as "Peter and the apostles".

Answer:Catholic tradition says that the apostle Peter went to Rome to lead the Christians there, and that he was the first pope. There is no actual evidence that Peter ever went to Rome, and Clement of Rome, writing (1 Clement) just thirty years after Peter was supposedly in Rome, appears to have been unaware that Peter had been to Rome. The tradition that Peter was in Rome is believed to have begun during the second century, probably by Anicetus of Rome.

If the pope is the bishop of Rome, it is important to note that the role of bishop did not arise until the second century. Some have suggested that Clement was the first overall leader of the Roman churches, whether or not he formally held the role of bishop. Other scholars believe that the first to hold the position of bishop in Rome may have been Anicetus himself, and therefore the first actual pope.

An attribute of the Catholic pope is considered to be his universal authority. In this regard, Council of Nicaea in 325 had only recognised the bishop of Rome as having authority in his area, while his peers had authority in other parts of the empire. Pope Damasus I (366-384) is credited with being the first bishop of Rome to claim specific primacy over the Church as a whole. Whether or not others recognised that authority, he was at least the first bishop of Rome to claim papal primacy, supplanting the decision of the Council of Nicaea. In terms of professed authority, Damasus may have been the first Catholic pope.

Catholic AnswerThe Catholic Church for 2000 years has always considered that Saint Peter was the first leader of the Church. The title 'Pope' may not have been in use at the time but Peter was no less a pope. There is ample evidence that he was in Rome. Peter ordained Clement a priest in Rome and later, about the year 70, Clement wrote his first letter to the Corinthians in which he mentions the martyrdom of both Peter and Paul in Rome. Tertulian, as well, writes of Peter in Rome and his martyrdom there. It actually makes no difference if Peter ever made it to Rome as he was still appointed by Christ as the first leader of the Church. Anyone then appointed or elected to take Peter's place would then be considered to be the head of the Church. Whether Peter took the headquarters of the Church to Rome or one of his successors is really not relevant.

St Peter, Jesus's apostle was the first pope.

from The Catechism of the Catholic Church, second edition, English translation 1994

880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, a the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them." (Lumen gentium 19; cf Lk 6:13; Jn 21:15-17) Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another." (Lumen gentium 22; cf. Codex Iuris Canonici, can 330.)

881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. (Cf. Mt16:18-10; Jn 21:15-17.) "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head." (Lumen gentium 22 section 2) This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.

882 The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, "is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful." (Lumen gentium 23) For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered. (Lumen gentium 22; cf. Christus Dominus 2, 9.)

Roman is an epithet first commonly used in England after the protestant revolt to describe the Catholic Church. It is never used by the Catholic Church.

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In Catholic Tradition the Apostle Peter was the first Catholic Pope. According to Catholic belief, Peter was the first Bishop of Rome and chief pastor of the whole Roman Catholic Church-the Vicar of Christ upon Earth. Although Peter never bore the title of "Pope", or "Vicar of Christ", the Catholic Church believes him to be the first Pope. Therefore, they consider every pope to be Peter's successor and the rightful superior of all other bishops.

The Catholic Church's recognition of Peter as head of its church on Earth (with Christ being its heavenly head) is based on its interpretation of two passages from the Canonical Gospels of the New Testament. The first passage is John 21:15-17, which concludes with "feed my sheep"-seen by Catholics as Christ promising the spiritual supremacy to Peter. The Catholic Encyclopedia sees in this passage Jesus "charging [Peter] with the superintendency of all his sheep, without exception; and consequently of his whole flock, that is, of his own church". The second passage is Matthew 16:17-20:

I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hell will not overcome it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven".

In reference to Peter's occupation before becoming an Apostle, the popes wear the Fisherman's Ring, which bears an image of the saint casting his nets from a fishing boat. The keys used as a symbol of the pope's authority refer to the "keys of the kingdom of Heaven" promised to Peter.[Matt. 16:18-19] The terminology of this "commission" of Peter is unmistakably parallel to the commissioning of Eliakim ben Hilkiah in Isaiah 22:15-23. Peter is often depicted in both Western and Eastern Christian art holding a key or a set of keys.

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Who is the sainted ninth century pope?

There are 5 popes from the 9th century who are saints:
St. Leo III
St. Paschal I
St. Leo IV
St. Nicholas I, the Great
St. Adrian III

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Does the Pope decide who becomes a saint?

The process by which someone becomes a saint is called canonization. The Catholic church has canonized around 3,000 people -- the exact number is unknown because not all saints were officially canonized. According to the church, the pope does not make someone a saint -- the designation of sainthood only recognizes what God has already done. For centuries, saints were chosen through public opinion. In the 10th century, Pope John XV developed an official canonization process.

So overall No.

Clarification:

Investigations into a candidate's qualifications to be declared a saint are carried out under the auspices of the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Once they feel they have sufficient information, they pass the case along to the pope who makes the final decision.

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Popes

Why is the Pope in charge of the Roman Catholic Church?

When Christ had all his apostles, he said to Saint Peter "You are the rock upon which I build my Church". Peter took his role as "Head Apostle" seriously, writing letters to followers and spearding the Word across the globe.

He went to Rome, where he was persecuted for his Christianity; he asked to be crucified upside down, according to legend, because he felt being crucified as Christ was was too good for him.

With Peter gone, the Christians needed a new leader: Peter had chosen St Linus as his successor as the Bishop of Rome (the other title that the Pope holds) and so the torch was passed. At this time, there was no "Roman Catholic Church"... the Christians were pretty much a sect of people who ebelived much the same thing, taught by people who had known Christ. They didn't have a "Pope" in the sense we have one, they had a council of elders who resolved arguements and asnwered questions.

Little by little, people broke off into sects. When Constantine declared Christianity his religion (circa 300 AD), he wanted people to all belong... the Nicene creed, which outline the beliefs a "Christian" has ... (I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and Earth, an in Jesus Christ, his only son our Lord...")- the centre of the Empire was Rome, so it was also the centre of the Church.

When the centre of the empire moved top Constantinople, the Church remained in Rome, to keep it's roots.

It's called the Papacy, and the leader is called the Pope, because it's the Italian for Father- much as a Priest is called "Father", the church has its father, the Pope. When the Protestant reformation came, the Catholic Church remained led by the Pope, but the breakaway sects were led by whomever they felt had authority.

And that's why the Catholic Church has a Pope.

Catholic AnswerIn the Old Testament, in the Davidic Kingdom, there was a Prime Minister who held the "power of the keys" and ruled in the King's name. Jesus specifically refers to this when making Peter his Vicar on earth, thus establishing what we now call the Papacy.

from The Catechism of the Catholic Church, second edition, English translation 1994

880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, a the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them." (Lumen gentium 19; cf Lk 6:13; Jn 21:15-17) Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another." (Lumen gentium 22; cf. Codex Iuris Canonici, can 330.)

881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. (Cf. Mt 16:18-10; Jn 21:15-17.) "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head." (Lumen gentium 22 section 2) This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.

882 The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, "is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful." (Lumen gentium 23) For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered. (Lumen gentium 22; cf. Christus Dominus 2, 9.)

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John Paul II

When was Pope John Paul II elected to the papacy?

Pope John Paul became pope on October 16, 1978.

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Pope Benedict XVI

When did Pope Benedict XVI become pope?

He was elected Pope on April 19th 2005, in a papal conclave. He then celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on April 24th 2005. And on May 7th 2005 he took possession of his Cathedral.

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope on the 19 of April in 2005, and took the name Benedict XVI.

I take it you mean when Pope Benedict XVI was pope, or when Benedict XVI become pope. I'll answer both ways. Cardinal Joseph Alois Ratzinger a major prefect in the Roman Curia (the Holy See's government in a way) and also dean the College of Cardinals under Pope John Paul II. When John Paul died in April 2005, the College of Cardinals entered conclave on April 17 and on the two days later on April 19, the Cardinals elected Cardinal Ratzinger as pope being John Paul's successor. Cardinal Ratzinger as you know took the name of Benedict XVI. Pope Benedict led the Church from his election in 2005 to his resignation/retirement on Feb. 28, 2013 due to exhaustion and old age.

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Where does the current pope live?

The pope normally lives in the Papal Apartments in the Vatican City, in Rome. However, Pope Frabcis has chosen to live in the Duomo Sancta Marta, a hostel constructed to house cardinals during conclaves or as a place for visitng dignitaries and clergy to stay when visiting the Vatican. Francis has a small modest apartment there.

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Why does the Pope wear red shoes?

The tradition of the popes wearing red shoes were carried over from the customs of ancient Rome itself. In fact, by the time of the Byzantine Empire only three people are allowed to officially wear red shoes in the empire: the Emperor, the Empress, and the Pope. Even in art, depictions of people wearing red shoes are severely restricted to the above-mentioned or the angels.

During ancient times, the manner and style of dress signified and symbolized rank, heritage, group or cultural affiliations, status, also of privilege. This was more true then than it is now. The manner and style of a person identifies him. For example, during the Yuan dynasty, only the Khan can wear green under pain of death. And during the Ching/Manchu dynasty only the Emperor can wear the Imperial yellow.

The toga, for example, was exclusively worn only by Roman citizens. The toga praetexta, furthermore, can only be worn by magistrates as this was a symbol of his office and rank. The republican senators wore red shoes, as did the Roman patricians. This custom was carried over from even before the Roman Empire, and before the Roman Republic tracing it back to the Kingdom of Rome. Thus this manner and custom of privilege of footwear is very ancient.

By the time of the Edict of Milan in 313 under Constantine the Great, Christianity was finally tolerated and the status of the Church enhanced throughout the Roman Empire. It was around this time that the bishops received the privilege of wearing the purple - a privilege still seen today. It was around this time after the toleration of Christianity and the transfer and donation of the imperial Lateran palace and Lateran basilica to the Bishop of Rome, (Pope Miltiades) and to the Church that privileges of imperial rank and imperial status are crystallized in the manner of footwear. Thus this privilege of red shoes can be (circumstantially, since firsthand written historical or archeological evidence have since been lost or destroyed by successive waves of barbarian pillage and destruction and looting during wars) traced at this point. The ancient Roman custom has now become Christian.

When the capital was transfered to Constantinople in 330, by political necessity the then suffragan bishopric of Byzantium was raised to an archbishopric. It was around this time that aspirations to greater status by the Archbishop of Constantinople becomes evident. Although only Rome, Antioch and Alexandria were patriarchates, by 381 a canon was inserted (and refused by the Popes) to establish the Archbishop of Constantinople as Patriarch. Political vicissitudes under the patronage of the Emperor, notably after 451 would later impress the status quo we have today by creating the Patriarchates of Constantinople and of Jerusalem. It was only after the Council of Florence in the 15th century that the Roman Church accepted the status quo of the Pentarchy. Although the Patriarchs of Constantinople have a history of trying to usurp authority and privilege during the Byzantine Empire, nevertheless, the ancient Roman privilege of red shoes were never extended nor granted to the Patriarch of Constantinople or anybody else in the Empire - a fact that remains to this day in life and iconography.

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Who was the pope after Benedict IV?

Pope Leo V

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How many encyclicals did Pope Leo XIII write?

85

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Treaties

Did Pope Alexander II issued the Treaty of Tordesillas?

Yes he "issued" it, below is a link to the Catholic Encyclopedia explaining Papal arbitration.

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Is the hat the pope wears Satanic?

No, it is not Satanic. It is part of the traditional garb of the pope.

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Pope Benedict XVI

What are the names of all the popes in order ending with Benedict XVI?

The List of Popes(from the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia

  1. St. Peter (32-67)
  2. St. Linus (67-76)
  3. St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)
  4. St. Clement I (88-97)
  5. St. Evaristus (97-105)
  6. St. Alexander I (105-115)
  7. St. Sixtus I (115-125) Also called Xystus I
  8. St. Telesphorus (125-136)
  9. St. Hyginus (136-140)
  10. St. Pius I (140-155)
  11. St. Anicetus (155-166)
  12. St. Soter (166-175)
  13. St. Eleutherius (175-189)
  14. St. Victor I (189-199)
  15. St. Zephyrinus (199-217)
  16. St. Callistus I (217-22) Callistus and the following three popes were opposed by St. Hippolytus, antipope (217-236)
  17. St. Urban I (222-30)
  18. St. Pontain (230-35)
  19. St. Anterus (235-36)
  20. St. Fabian (236-50)
  21. St. Cornelius (251-53) Opposed by Novatian, antipope (251)
  22. St. Lucius I (253-54)
  23. St. Stephen I (254-257)
  24. St. Sixtus II (257-258)
  25. St. Dionysius (260-268)
  26. St. Felix I (269-274)
  27. St. Eutychian (275-283)
  28. St. Caius (283-296) Also called Gaius
  29. St. Marcellinus (296-304)
  30. St. Marcellus I (308-309)
  31. St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
  32. St. Miltiades (311-14)
  33. St. Sylvester I (314-35)
  34. St. Marcus (336)
  35. St. Julius I (337-52)
  36. Liberius (352-66) Opposed by Felix II, antipope (355-365)
  37. St. Damasus I (366-83) Opposed by Ursicinus, antipope (366-367)
  38. St. Siricius (384-99)
  39. St. Anastasius I (399-401)
  40. St. Innocent I (401-17)
  41. St. Zosimus (417-18)
  42. St. Boniface I (418-22) Opposed by Eulalius, antipope (418-419)
  43. St. Celestine I (422-32)
  44. St. Sixtus III (432-40)
  45. St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
  46. St. Hilarius (461-68)
  47. St. Simplicius (468-83)
  48. St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
  49. St. Gelasius I (492-96)
  50. Anastasius II (496-98)
  51. St. Symmachus (498-514) Opposed by Laurentius, antipope (498-501)
  52. St. Hormisdas (514-23)
  53. St. John I (523-26)
  54. St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)
  55. Boniface II (530-32) Opposed by Dioscorus, antipope (530)
  56. John II (533-35)
  57. St. Agapetus I (535-36) Also called Agapitus I
  58. St. Silverius (536-37)
  59. Vigilius (537-55)
  60. Pelagius I (556-61)
  61. John III (561-74)
  62. Benedict I (575-79)
  63. Pelagius II (579-90)
  64. St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)
  65. Sabinian (604-606)
  66. Boniface III (607)
  67. St. Boniface IV (608-15)
  68. St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18)
  69. Boniface V (619-25)
  70. Honorius I (625-38)
  71. Severinus (640)
  72. John IV (640-42)
  73. Theodore I (642-49)
  74. St. Martin I (649-55)
  75. St. Eugene I (655-57)
  76. St. Vitalian (657-72)
  77. Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
  78. Donus (676-78)
  79. St. Agatho (678-81)
  80. St. Leo II (682-83)
  81. St. Benedict II (684-85)
  82. John V (685-86)
  83. Conon (686-87)
  84. St. Sergius I (687-701) Opposed by Theodore and Paschal, antipopes (687)
  85. John VI (701-05)
  86. John VII (705-07)
  87. Sisinnius (708)
  88. Constantine (708-15)
  89. St. Gregory II (715-31)
  90. St. Gregory III (731-41)
  91. St. Zachary (741-52) Stephen II followed Zachary, but because he died before being consecrated, modern lists omit him
  92. Stephen III (752-57)
  93. St. Paul I (757-67)
  94. Stephen IV (767-72) Opposed by Constantine II (767) and Philip (768), antipopes (767)
  95. Adrian I (772-95)
  96. St. Leo III (795-816)
  97. Stephen V (816-17)
  98. St. Paschal I (817-24)
  99. Eugene II (824-27)
  100. Valentine (827)
  101. Gregory IV (827-44)
  102. Sergius II (844-47) Opposed by John, antipope (855)
  103. St. Leo IV (847-55)
  104. Benedict III (855-58) Opposed by Anastasius, antipope (855)
  105. St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
  106. Adrian II (867-72)
  107. John VIII (872-82)
  108. Marinus I (882-84)
  109. St. Adrian III (884-85)
  110. Stephen VI (885-91)
  111. Formosus (891-96)
  112. Boniface VI (896)
  113. Stephen VII (896-97)
  114. Romanus (897)
  115. Theodore II (897)
  116. John IX (898-900)
  117. Benedict IV (900-03)
  118. Leo V (903) Opposed by Christopher, antipope (903-904)
  119. Sergius III (904-11)
  120. Anastasius III (911-13)
  121. Lando (913-14)
  122. John X (914-28)
  123. Leo VI (928)
  124. Stephen VIII (929-31)
  125. John XI (931-35)
  126. Leo VII (936-39)
  127. Stephen IX (939-42)
  128. Marinus II (942-46)
  129. Agapetus II (946-55)
  130. John XII (955-63)
  131. Leo VIII (963-64)
  132. Benedict V (964)
  133. John XIII (965-72)
  134. Benedict VI (973-74)
  135. Benedict VII (974-83) Benedict and John XIV were opposed by Boniface VII, antipope (974; 984-985)
  136. John XIV (983-84)
  137. John XV (985-96)
  138. Gregory V (996-99) Opposed by John XVI, antipope (997-998)
  139. Sylvester II (999-1003)
  140. John XVII (1003)
  141. John XVIII (1003-09)
  142. Sergius IV (1009-12)
  143. Benedict VIII (1012-24) Opposed by Gregory, antipope (1012)
  144. John XIX (1024-32)
  145. Benedict IX (1032-45) He appears on this list three separate times, because he was twice deposed and restored
  146. Sylvester III (1045) Considered by some to be an antipope
  147. Benedict IX (1045)
  148. Gregory VI (1045-46)
  149. Clement II (1046-47)
  150. Benedict IX (1047-48)
  151. Damasus II (1048)
  152. St. Leo IX (1049-54)
  153. Victor II (1055-57)
  154. Stephen X (1057-58)
  155. Nicholas II (1058-61) Opposed by Benedict X, antipope (1058)
  156. Alexander II (1061-73) Opposed by Honorius II, antipope (1061-1072)
  157. St. Gregory VII (1073-85) Gregory and the following three popes were opposed by Guibert ("Clement III"), antipope (1080-1100)
  158. Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
  159. Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
  160. Paschal II (1099-1118) Opposed by Theodoric (1100), Aleric (1102) and Maginulf ("Sylvester IV", 1105-1111), antipopes (1100)
  161. Gelasius II (1118-19) Opposed by Burdin ("Gregory VIII"), antipope (1118)
  162. Callistus II (1119-24)
  163. Honorius II (1124-30) Opposed by Celestine II, antipope (1124)
  164. Innocent II (1130-43) Opposed by Anacletus II (1130-1138) and Gregory Conti ("Victor IV") (1138), antipopes (1138)
  165. Celestine II (1143-44)
  166. Lucius II (1144-45)
  167. Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
  168. Anastasius IV (1153-54)
  169. Adrian IV (1154-59)
  170. Alexander III (1159-81) Opposed by Octavius ("Victor IV") (1159-1164), Pascal III (1165-1168), Callistus III (1168-1177) and Innocent III (1178-1180), antipopes
  171. Lucius III (1181-85)
  172. Urban III (1185-87)
  173. Gregory VIII (1187)
  174. Clement III (1187-91)
  175. Celestine III (1191-98)
  176. Innocent III (1198-1216)
  177. Honorius III (1216-27)
  178. Gregory IX (1227-41)
  179. Celestine IV (1241)
  180. Innocent IV (1243-54)
  181. Alexander IV (1254-61)
  182. Urban IV (1261-64)
  183. Clement IV (1265-68)
  184. Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)
  185. Blessed Innocent V (1276)
  186. Adrian V (1276)
  187. John XXI (1276-77)
  188. Nicholas III (1277-80)
  189. Martin IV (1281-85)
  190. Honorius IV (1285-87)
  191. Nicholas IV (1288-92)
  192. St. Celestine V (1294)
  193. Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
  194. Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
  195. Clement V (1305-14)
  196. John XXII (1316-34) Opposed by Nicholas V, antipope (1328-1330)
  197. Benedict XII (1334-42)
  198. Clement VI (1342-52)
  199. Innocent VI (1352-62)
  200. Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
  201. Gregory XI (1370-78)
  202. Urban VI (1378-89) Opposed by Robert of Geneva ("Clement VII"), antipope (1378-1394)
  203. Boniface IX (1389-1404) Opposed by Robert of Geneva ("Clement VII") (1378-1394), Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII") (1394-1417) and Baldassare Cossa ("John XXIII") (1400-1415), antipopes
  204. Innocent VII (1404-06) Opposed by Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII") (1394-1417) and Baldassare Cossa ("John XXIII") (1400-1415), antipopes
  205. Gregory XII (1406-15) Opposed by Pedro de Luna ("Benedict XIII") (1394-1417), Baldassare Cossa ("John XXIII") (1400-1415), and Pietro Philarghi ("Alexander V") (1409-1410), antipopes
  206. Martin V (1417-31)
  207. Eugene IV (1431-47) Opposed by Amadeus of Savoy ("Felix V"), antipope (1439-1449)
  208. Nicholas V (1447-55)
  209. Callistus III (1455-58)
  210. Pius II (1458-64)
  211. Paul II (1464-71)
  212. Sixtus IV (1471-84)
  213. Innocent VIII (1484-92)
  214. Alexander VI (1492-1503)
  215. Pius III (1503)
  216. Julius II (1503-13)
  217. Leo X (1513-21)
  218. Adrian VI (1522-23)
  219. Clement VII (1523-34)
  220. Paul III (1534-49)
  221. Julius III (1550-55)
  222. Marcellus II (1555)
  223. Paul IV (1555-59)
  224. Pius IV (1559-65)
  225. St. Pius V (1566-72)
  226. Gregory XIII (1572-85)
  227. Sixtus V (1585-90)
  228. Urban VII (1590)
  229. Gregory XIV (1590-91)
  230. Innocent IX (1591)
  231. Clement VIII (1592-1605)
  232. Leo XI (1605)
  233. Paul V (1605-21)
  234. Gregory XV (1621-23)
  235. Urban VIII (1623-44)
  236. Innocent X (1644-55)
  237. Alexander VII (1655-67)
  238. Clement IX (1667-69)
  239. Clement X (1670-76)
  240. Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)
  241. Alexander VIII (1689-91)
  242. Innocent XII (1691-1700)
  243. Clement XI (1700-21)
  244. Innocent XIII (1721-24)
  245. Benedict XIII (1724-30)
  246. Clement XII (1730-40)
  247. Benedict XIV (1740-58)
  248. Clement XIII (1758-69)
  249. Clement XIV (1769-74)
  250. Pius VI (1775-99)
  251. Pius VII (1800-23)
  252. Leo XII (1823-29)
  253. Pius VIII (1829-30)
  254. Gregory XVI (1831-46)
  255. Blessed Pius IX (1846-78)
  256. Leo XIII (1878-1903)
  257. St. Pius X (1903-14)
  258. Benedict XV (1914-22)
  259. Pius XI (1922-39)
  260. Pius XII (1939-58)
  261. Blessed John XXIII (1958-63)
  262. Paul VI (1963-78)
  263. John Paul I (1978)
  264. Blessed John Paul II (1978-2005)
  265. Benedict XVI (2005-2013)
  266. Francis (2013—)
209210211
Religion & Spirituality
Popes

What are the responsibilities and duties of a pope?

In a general sense, the Pope is the Earthly leader of the Catholic church. As such, he exists to lead and inspire Christians, particularly Catholics, to follow Christ in every decision they make.

AnswerThe pope is regarded as the successor of St Peter. As one of the apostles, Peter was subject to the same privileges and obligations as the other apostles (equivalent to a Catholic bishop today).

However in addition to this according to the Gospel according to St. Matthew (Ch 16) Jesus gave the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven to Peter alone. As key-holder to the Kingdom of Heaven where Christ is King the role of St Peter and his successors is to provide access to the benefits of the Kingdom of Heaven for those authorised to receive them ("feed my lambs", "feed my sheep"). In order to create harmony between heaven and earth Scripture also provides that whatever he binds or looses on earth, apparently in the execution of this duty, will also be bound or loosed in heaven.

AnswerThe most important duty is to guide and support the whole of the Church. He is the Leader of the Church.
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Popes

Who was the first Pope?

The Apostle St. Peter was the first Bishop of Rome, and thus the first Pope of the Catholic Church. Peter was chosen to become a Vicar of Christ by Jesus with Jesus as the Head of the Catholic church.

There are many references to this in the Bible. Just a few examples would include:

- "And I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church" (Matt. 16:18). (Note: the word for Peter and Rock is the same.) (Christ was acknowledging Peter's recognition of Christ and upon this recognition would Christ build his church. Christ did not appoint Peter as his successor rather he sent the 12 apostles to teach the people and build the Church.)

- Jesus entrusted Peter with his flock, making him too a Good Shepherd (John 21:15-17).

- After his conversion Paul went to see Peter, the chief apostle (Gal. 1:18).

Also, before Peter went on to establish the Roman church (the Catholic Church), he was the Patriarch of Antioch.

Many denominations, not just Catholic, recognize that indeed Peter was the first Pope.*

* Note that not all Christian denominations reach the same conclusion from the following passage of scripture

13 ¶ When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?

14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets.

15 He saith unto them, But whom say aye that I am?

16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.

17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.

18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

Another Opinion:

Firstly while holy scripture does not say that St. Peter was in Rome, it also does not say that he was not.

It is from the historical writings of the early church fathers that the Orthodox, Catholic,Anglican and Lutheran churches gain their belief that Peter was the first bishop of Rome and view him as being honored as the first among the apostles regardless of how they interpreted this supremacy.

St. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies" 3,1,1 180 A.D., J208

'...in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were evangelizing at Rome, and laying the foundations of the church'.

St. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", chapter III, '...the very ancient, and universally known church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also (by pointing out) the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops'.

Eusebius, "History of the Church", 2,14,6, 300 A.D., J651dd

'In the same reign of Claudius, the all-good and gracious providence which watches over all things guided Peter, the great and mighty one among the Apostles, who, because of his virtue, was the spokesman for all the others, to Rome'.

Tertullian, "The demurrer against the heretics", chapter XXXII,1,

'...like the church of the Romans where Clement was ordained by Peter'.

Saint Peter of Alexandria, "The Canonical Letter", canon 9, 306 A.D.

"Peter, the first chosen of the Apostles, having been apprehended often and thrown into prison and treated with ignominy, at last was crucified in Rome."

Eusebius, "The Chronicle" Ad An.Dom 68, J651cc

"Nero is the first, in addition to all his other crimes, to make a persecution against the Christians, in which Peter and Paul died gloriously in Rome."

Eusebius, "History of the Church", 3,2, 300 A.D., J652a

"After the martyrdom of Paul and Peter, Linus was the first appointed to the Episcopacy of the Church at Rome."

Lactantius, "Of the manner in which the persecutors died":

This letter is addressed to Donatus. It not only shows that Peter was actually in Rome, but that he died there also at the hands of Nero. Chapter II. "His apostles were at that time eleven in number, to whom were added Matthias, in the room of the traitor Judas, and afterward Paul. Then were they dispersed throughout all the earth to preach the Gospel, as the Lord their Master had commanded them; and during twenty-five years, and until the beginning of the reign of the Emperor Nero, they occupied themselves in laying the foundations of the Church in every province and city. And while Nero reigned, the Apostle Peter came to Rome, and, through the power of God committed unto him, wrought certain miracles, and, by turning many to the true religion, built up a faithful and steadfast temple unto the Lord. When Nero heard of those things, and observed that not only in Rome, but in every other place, a great multitude revolted daily from the worship of idols, and, condemning their old ways, went over to the new religion, he, an execrable and pernicious tyrant, sprung forward to raze the heavenly temple and destroy the true faith. He it was who first persecuted the servants of God; he crucified Peter, and slew Paul: nor did he escape with impunity; for God looked on the affliction of His people; and therefore the tyrant, bereaved of authority, and precipitated from the height of empire, suddenly disappeared, and even the burial-place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen."

Saint Damasus I, "The Decree of Damasus" 3, 382 A.D., J910u

"The first see, therefore, is that of Peter the Apostle, that of the Roman Church, which has neither stain nor blemish nor anything like it."

Saint Augustine, "Letter to Generosus", 53,1,2, 400 A.D., J1418

"If the very order of episcopal succession is to be considered, how much more surely, truly, and safely do we number them from Peter himself, to whom, as to one representing the whole Church, the Lord said: "Upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell shall not conquer it."

The Holy Bible is the word of God and the foundation stone and bedrock of Christianity, however one must realize that it does not mention absolutely everything that happened in the spread of Christianity, why would it, does it help the Christian message at all to start talking about absolutely everything Peter did, of course not, there is simply too much information to go into the good book.

Another Opinion:

On my recent trip to Rome, I took a tour of the Vatican. The guide said that Saint Peter died on a cross. But he did it upside down. Why? Because he said that he wasn't worthy enough to die the same way as Jesus. Why he was sentenced to death was another story. Since Rome didn't support Christianity back then, Christians were slaughtered, crucified or some other painful way of death. And Peter proudly stated that he was their leader, was crucified in front of everyone.

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If Peter was the 1st pope then why did the Rome also wanted to kill him they kill Jesus also the Bible said this about peter....

The most commonly accepted church tradition in regard to the death of an apostle is that the apostle Peter was crucified upside-down on an x-shaped cross in Rome in fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy (John 21:18).

If you look right Jesus told Peter (YOU ARE PETER) telling Peter who peter is Jesus is the (ROCK / the Church) has always been and always be. Jesus is GOD the Father gave all to the SON peter is a man a sinner just like everyone here on earth but peter and the other apostles did what we cannot do is pick up our cross and walk with HIM who died for us. It is not an easy walk but we may try following GODS laws the laws that HE gave Moses the Ten Commandments, God wrote the Commandments with HIS finger and gave to the whole world to follow but many people now want to follow Commandments of men. Remember what peter and the apostles has to tell the high priest (Acts 5:29) "We must obey God rather than man beings! God Bless I hope this helps

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A BIBLICAL BASIS FOR PETER BEING THE FIRST POPE:

While it is a historical fact that Peter was the first bishop of Rome (what we now call pope)...here is Biblical proof that Peter was chosen by Christ to be the leader of the apostles and the leader of His church:

Note: please look up these scriptures for yourself...too much for me to type.

1)Matt. 16:17-19

Even if you don't agree that Jesus is referring to Peter as the rock on which he would build his church...in verse 19, Jesus gives Peter alone the keys to the kingdom of heaven and says that his decisions would be binding in heaven.

2)Luke 22:31-32

Jesus foretells Peter's denial and prays that Peter's faith would not fail and gives Peter the task of strengthening the other disciples.

3)John 21:15-17

After Christ's resurrection He asks Peter 3 times if he loves him (for the 3 times Peter had denied Him) and 3 times asks Peter to be the shepherd of His church.

4)Acts 2:14, 37 and 5:29

The book of Acts gives a few examples that show Peter in his role as leader by referring to the disciples as "Peter and the apostles".

ST Peter Apostle of Jesus Christ was the first pope. Source wikipedia and a known fact.
St. peter
St. Peter... the same Peter that was one of Christ's 12 Apostles.

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Popes
Celebrity Relationships

What celeb has been divorced the most?

Larry King has been been married 8 times and divorced 8 times. Don't know if anyone else can top that lol.

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Popes

When did the Pope stop getting married?

Most of the popes who were married were married before they became a priest and their wives died before they became ordained. Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287) was married before he took the Holy Orders and had at least two sons. He entered the clergy after his wife died, the last pope to have been married.

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Catholicism
Idioms, Cliches, and Slang
Definitions
Popes

What does the word 'Pope' mean?

The definition of Pope is "the head of the Catholic Church." It comes from the Greek word "papas", meaning "bishop, patriarch, or father".

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Popes
Vatican City
John Paul II

How many years did Pope John Paul serve as pope?

Pope John Paul II, born in 1920, was elected in 1978 at the very young age of 58 and served for over 26 years, dying in 2005 at the age of 84.

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Popes
Pope Benedict XVI

What job did Pope Benedict's sister do?

From 1959 Maria Ratzinger helped her Joseph brother in his household since he had been made a full professor at Bonn university and continued to do manage it until she died in 1991.

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Popes

Who was the pope in 1977?

Pope Paul VI was the pope in 1977.

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