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List of inventors and their inventions?

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March 27, 2013 4:00PM

A

* Bruno Abakanowicz, (1852-1900), Poland/Lithuania/Russia/France - Integraph, spirograph, parabolagraph

* Vitaly Abalakov, (1906-1986), Russia - camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor

* Hovannes Adamian, (1879-1932), Armenia/Russia - tricolor principle of the color television

* Robert Adler, (1913-2007), Austria/United States - wireless remote control

* Turhan Alçelik (c. 2006), Turkey - non-glaring headlamp

* Anatoly Alexandrov, (1903-1994), Russia - anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)

* Alexandre Alexeieff, (1901-1982) Russia/France - pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)

* Rostislav Alexeyev, (1916-1980), Russia - ekranoplan

* Zhores Alferov, (1930), Russia - heterotransistor, continuous-wave-operating diode laser (together with Dmitri Garbuzov)

* Genrich Altshuller, (1926-1998), Russia - TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")

* Mary Anderson, (1866-1953), United States - windshield wiper blade

* Vasily Andreyev, (1861-1918), Russia - standard balalaika

* Oleg Antonov, (1906-1984), Russia - An-series aircraft, including A-40 winged tank and An-124 (the largest serial cargo, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft An-225)

* Nicolas Appert, (1749-1841), France - canning (airtight food preservation)

* Archimedes, (c. 287-212 BC), Greece - Archimedes' screw

* Ami Argand, (1750-1803), France - Argand lamp

* Edwin H. Armstrong,(1890-1954), U.S. - FM radio

* William George Armstrong, (1810-1900), UK - hydraulic crane

* Neil Arnott, (1788-1874), UK - waterbed

* Lev Artsimovich, (1909-1973), Russia - tokamak

* Al-Ashraf, (fl. 1282-1296), Yemen - dry compass

* Joseph Aspdin, (1788-1855), England - Portland cement

* John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903-1995), United States - modern programmable computer

B

* Georgy Babakin, (1914-1971), Russia - first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)

* Charles Babbage, (1791-1871), UK - analytical engine (semi-automatic computer)

* Roger Bacon, (1214-1292), England - magnifying glass

* Leo Baekeland, (1863-1944), Belgian-American - Velox photographic paper and Bakelite

* Ralph H. Baer, (1922-), German born American - video game console

* Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162-1231), Iraq/Egypt - ventilator

* John Logie Baird, (1888-1946), Scotland - an electromechanical television, electronic color television

* Ibn al-Baitar, (d. 1248), Islamic Spain - three hundred drugs and foods, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, Hindiba, pharmacopoeia

* Abi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia/Iran - mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computer

* Donat Banki, (1859-1922), Hungary - inventor of the carburetor

* Vladimir Baranov-Rossine, (1888-1944), Ukraine/Russia/France - Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage

* John Bardeen, (1908-1991), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistor

* Vladimir Barmin, (1909-1993), Russia - first rocket launch complex (spaceport)

* Anthony R. Barringer, Canada/U.S. - INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system

* Earl W. Bascom, (1906-1995), Canada/U.S. - side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps

* Nikolay Basov, (1922-2001), Russia - co-inventor of laser and maser

* Ibn Bassal, (fl.1038-1075), Islamic Spain - flywheel, flywheel-driven noria, flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump

* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey - observation tube

* Eugen Baumann, (1846-1896), Germany - PVC

* Trevor Baylis, (1937-), UK - a wind-up radio

* Francis Beaufort, (1774-1857), France - Beaufort scale

* Ernest Beaux, (1881-1961), Russia/France - Chanel No. 5

* Arnold O. Beckman, (1900-2004), U.S. - pH meter

* Ulugh Beg, 1394-1449, Persia/Iran - Fakhri sextant, mural sextant

* Vladimir Bekhterev, (1857-1927), Russia - Bekhterev's Mixture

* Alexander Graham Bell, (1847-1922), Canada, Scotland, and U.S. - telephone

* Karl Benz, (1844-1929), Germany - the petrol-powered automobile

* Alexander Bereznyak, (1912-1974), Russia - first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)

* Georgy Beriev, (1903-1979), Georgia/Russia - Be-series amphibious aircraft

* Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), Germany and U.S. - the disc record gramophone

* Nikolay Benardos, (1842-1905), Russia - arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)

* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955-), UK - with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web

* Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, (955-996), Egypt - airmail, homing pigeon

* Bi Sheng (Chinese: 畢昇), (ca. 990-1051), China - clay movable type printing

* Laszlo Biro, (1899-1985), Hungary - modern ballpoint pen

* Clarence Birdseye, (1886-1956), U.S. - frozen food process

* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973-1048), Persia/Iran - mechanical geared lunisolar calendar analog computer, fixed-wired knowledge processing machine, conical measure, laboratory flask, Orthographical astrolabe, hodometer, pycnometer

* J. Stuart Blackton, (1875-1941), U.S. - stop-motion film

* Otto Blathy (1860-1939), Hungary - co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator

* Fyodor Blinov, (1827-1902), Russia - first tracked vehicle, steam-powered continuous track tractor

* Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898-1979), UK - nonreflective glass

* Alan Blumlein, (1903-1942), England - stereo

* Nils Bohlin, (1920-2002), Sweden - the three-point seat belt

* Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907-1964), Canada - snowmobile

* Sam Born, Russia/U.S. - lollipop-making machine

* Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858-1937), India - Crescograph

* George de Bothezat, (1882-1940), Russia/U.S. - quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)

* Robert W. Bower, (1936-), U.S. - self-aligned-gate MOSFET

* Seth Boyden, (1788-1870), U.S. - nail-making machine

* Walter Houser Brattain, (1902-1987), U.S. - co-inventor of the transistor

* Louis Braille, (1809-1852), France - the Braille writing system

* Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850-1918), Germany - cathode-ray tube oscilloscope

* Harry Brearley, (1871-1948), UK - stainless steel

* Sergey Brin, (1973-), Russia/U.S. - with Larry Page invented Google web search engine

* Mikhail Britnev, (1822-1889), Russia - first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)

* Rachel Fuller Brown, (1898-1980), U.S., Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic

* John Moses Browning, (1855-1926), U.S. - automatic handgun

* Maria Christina Bruhn, (1732-1802), Sweden

* Nikolay Brusentsov, (born 1925), Russia - ternary computer (Setun)

* Edwin Beard Budding, (1795-1846), UK - lawnmower

* Gersh Budker, (1918-1977), Russia - electron cooling, co-inventor of collider

* Corliss Orville Burandt, U.S. - Variable valve timing

* Henry Burden,(1791-1871) Scotland and U.S.- Horseshoe machine (made 60 horse shoes in a minute), first usable Iron Railed road spike, and builder of the most powerful waterwheel in history "Niagara of Water-Wheels"

* Richard James Burgess, U.K. - Simmons (electronic drum company), co-inventor of SDS5 drum synthesizer

* Aleksandr Butlerov, (1828-1886), Russia - hexamine, formaldehyde

C

* Robert Cailliau, (1947-), Belgium - with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web

* C`ai Lun, 蔡倫 (50-121 AD), China - paper

* Marvin Camras, (1916-1995), U.S. - magnetic recording

* Chester Carlson, (1906-1968), U.S. - Xerography

* Wallace Carothers, (1896-1937), U.S. - Nylon

* Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl.1630-1632), Turkey - long-distance flight, artificial wings

* Lagari Hasan Celebi, (1633), Turkey - first manned rocket flight

* Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764-1846), France - rhinoplastic surgery

* George Cayley, (1773-1857), UK - glider, tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track

* Roxey Ann Caplin, (1793-1888), UK - Corsets

* Dennis Charter, (1952-), Australia - secure electronic payment system for internet PaySafe

* Vladimir Chelomey, (1914-1984), Russia - first space station (Salyut), Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)

* Pavel Cherenkov, (1904-1990), Russia - Cherenkov detector

* Adrian Chernoff, (1971-), U.S. - GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits

* Evgeniy Chertovsky, (1902-), Russia - pressure suit

* Alexander Chizhevsky, (1897-1964), Russia - air ionizer

* Andrey Chokhov, (c. 1545-1629), Russia - Tsar Cannon

* Niels Christensen (1865-1952), U.S. - O-ring

* Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784-1865), UK - Wheatstone bridge

* Juan de la Cierva, (1895-1936), Spain - the autogyro

* Alexandru Ciurcu, (1854-1922), Romania - Reaction engine

* Georges Claude, (1870-1960), France - neon lamp

* Henri Coandă, (1886-1972), Romania - Jet engine

* Josephine Cochrane, (1839-1913), U.S. - dishwasher

* Christopher Cockerell, (1910-1999), UK - Hovercraft

* Aeneas Coffey, (1780-1852), Ireland - heat exchanger, Coffey still

* Sir Henry Cole, (1808-1882), England - Christmas card

* Samuel Colt, (1814-1862), U.S. - Revolver

* George Constantinescu, (1881-1965), Romania - Interrupter gear

* Lloyd Groff Copeman, (1865-1956), U.S. - Electric stove

* Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550-1607), The Netherlands - sawmill

* Jacques Cousteau, (1910-1997), France - co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera

* Thomas Crapper, (1836-1910), England - ballcock (toilet valve)

* Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655-1731), Italy - piano

* János Csonka, (1852-1939), Hungary - co-inventor of carburetor

* Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725-1804), France - first steam-powered road vehicle

* William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745-1800), UK - chlorinated water

* William Cullen, (1710-1790), UK - first artificial refrigerator

* Glenn Curtiss, (1878-1930), U.S. - ailerons

D

* Gustaf Dalén, (1869-1937), Sweden - AGA cooker; Dalén light; Agamassan

* Salvino D'Armate, (1258-1312), Italy - credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284

* Corradino D'Ascanio, (1891-1981), Italy - D'AT3 helicopter; Vespa scooter

* Jacob Davis, (1868-1908), U.S. - riveted jeans

* Edmund Davy, (1785-1857), Ireland - acetylene

* Humphry Davy, (1778-1829), UK - Davy miners lamp

* Joseph Day, (1855-1946), UK - the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine

* Lee DeForest, (1873-1961), U.S. - triode

* Vasily Degtyaryov, (1880-1949), Russia - first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat

* Akinfiy Demidov, (1678-1745), Russia - co-developer of rebar, cast iron dome, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)

* Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, (1927-2006), Russia - 3D holography

* Miksa Deri (1854-1938), Hungary - co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer

* James Dewar, (1842-1923), UK - Thermos flask

* Aleksandr Dianin, (1851-1918), Russia - Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound

* William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860-1935), UK - motion picture camera

* Philip Diehl, (1847-1913), U.S. - Ceiling fan, electric sewing machine

* Rudolf Diesel, (1858-1913), Germany - Diesel engine

* Al-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia/Iran - more than a hundred plant drugs

* William H. Dobelle, (1943-2004), United States - first functioning artificial eye

* Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, (1862-1919),Poland/Russia - three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)

* Nikolay Dollezhal, (1899-2000),Russia - AM-1 reactor for the 1st nuclear power plant, other RBMK reactors, VVER pressurized water reactors

* Bryan Donkin, (1768-1855), UK - print industry composition roller

* Hub van Doorne, (1900-1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission

* Anastase Dragomir, (1896-1966), Romania - Ejection seat

* Karl Drais, (1785-1851), Germany - dandy horse (Draisine)

* Cornelius Drebbel, (1572-1633), The Netherlands - first navigable submarine

* Richard Drew, (1899-1980), U.S. - Masking tape

* John Boyd Dunlop, (1840-1921) UK - first practical pneumatic tyre

* Cyril Duquet, (1841-1922) Canada - Telephone handset

* Alexey Dushkin, (1904-1977), Russia - deep column station

* James Dyson, (1947- ) UK - Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.

E

* George Eastman, (1854-1932), U.S. - roll film

* Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), U.S. - phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc.

* Willem Einthoven, (1860-1927), The Netherlands - the electrocardiogram

* Ivan Elmanov, Russia - first monorail (horse-drawn)

* Rune Elmqvist, (1906-1996), Sweden - implantable pacemaker

* Douglas Engelbart, (1925-), U.S. - the computer mouse [1]

* John Ericsson, (1803-1889), Sweden - the two screw-propeller

* Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846-1926), Sweden - the handheld micro telephone

* Ole Evinrude, (1877-1934), Norway - outboard motor

F

* Peter Carl Fabergé, (1846-1920), Russia - Fabergé Eggs

* Samuel Face, (1923-2001), U.S. - concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch

* Michael Faraday, (1791-1867), England - electric transformer, electric motor

* Johann Maria Farina, (1685-1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne

* Philo Farnsworth, (1906-1971), U.S. - electronic television

* Muhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Persia/Iran/Iraq - brass astrolabe

* James Fergason, (1934-), U.S. - improved liquid crystal display

* Enrico Fermi, (1901-1954), Italy - nuclear reactor

* Humberto Fernández Morán, (1924-1999), Venezuela - Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome

* Reginald Fessenden, (1866-1932), Canada - two-way radio

* Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick, (1829-1901), Germany - contact lens

* Fatima al-Fihri, (c. 859), Tunisia/Morocco - university

* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Al-Andalus - eye glasses, artificial wings, watch, fused quartz and silica glass, artificial thunder and lightning, metronome

* Artur Fischer, (1919-) Germany - fasteners including fischertechnik.

* Gerhard Fischer, Germany/U.S. - hand-held metal detector

* Nicolas Florine, (1891-1972), Georgia/Russia/Belgium - first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely

* Robert Fulton, (1765-1815), United States - first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine

* Alexander Fleming, (1881-1955), Scotland - penicillin

* John Ambrose Fleming, (1848-1945), England - vacuum diode

* Sandford Fleming, (1827-1915), Canada - Universal Standard Time

* Tommy Flowers, (1905-1998), England - Colossus an early electronic computer.

* Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819-1868), France - Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current

* Benoît Fourneyron, (1802-1867), France - water turbine

* John Fowler, (1826-1864), England - steam-driven ploughing engine

* Benjamin Franklin, (1706-1790), U.S. - the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica

* Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788-1827), France - Fresnel lens

* William Friese-Greene, (1855-1921), England - cinematography

* Buckminster Fuller, (1895-1983), U.S. - geodesic dome

* Ivan Fyodorov, (c. 1510-1583), Russia/Poland-Lithuania - invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia

* Svyatoslav Fyodorov, (1927-2000), Russia - radial keratotomy

* Vladimir Fyodorov, (1874-1966), Russia - Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)

G

* Dennis Gabor, (1900-1979), UK - holography

* Boris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862-1916), Russia - electromagnetic seismograph

* Dmitri Garbuzov, (1940-2006), Russia/U.S. - continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers

* Elmer R. Gates, (1859-1923), USA - foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")

* Richard J. Gatling, (1818-1903), U.S. - wheat drill, first successful machine gun

* Georgy Gause, (1910-1986), Russia - gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics

* E. K. Gauzen, Russia - three bolt equipment (early diving costume)

* Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882-1945), Germany - Geiger counter

* Andrey Geim, (born 1958), Russia/United Kingdom - graphene

* Nestor Genko, (1839-1904), Russia - Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)

* Henri Giffard, (1825-1882), France - powered airship, injector

* Valentyn Glushko, (1908-1989), Russia - hypergolic propellant, electric propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)

* Heinrich Göbel, (1818-1893), Germany - incandescent lamp

* Leonid Gobyato, (1875-1915), Russia - first modern man-portable mortar

* Robert Goddard, (1882-1945), U.S. - liquid fuel rocket

* Igor Gorynin, (1926), Russia - weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminum alloys, radiation-hardened steels

* Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906-1977), Hungary - vinyl record (LP), CBS color television

* Charles Goodyear, (1800-1860), U.S. - vulcanization of rubber

* Gordon Gould, (1920-2005), U.S. - co-inventor of laser

* Richard Hall Gower, (1768-1833), England - ship's hull and rigging

* Boris Grabovsky, (1901-1966), Russia - cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube

* Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924-1980), U.S. - Liquid Paper

* James Henry Greathead, (1844-1896), South Africa - tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique

* Chester Greenwood, (1858-1937), U.S. - thermal earmuffs

* James Gregory, (1638-1675), Scotland - Gregorian telescope

* William Robert Grove, (1811-1896), Wales - fuel cell

* Otto von Guericke, (1602-1686), Germany - vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter

* Mikhail Gurevich, (1893-1976), Russia - MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)

* Hakan Gürsu, (c. 2007), Turkey - Volitan

* Johann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s-1468), Germany - movable type printing press

* Samuel Guthrie, (1782-1848), U.S. - discovered chloroform

H

* John Hadley, (1682-1744), England - Octant

* Waldemar Haffkine, (1860-1930), Russia/Switzerland - first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines

* Tracy Hall, (1919-2008 ), U.S. - synthetic diamond

* Christopher Hansteen, (1783-1873), Norway - discovery of terrestrial magnetism

* James Hargreaves, (1720-1778), England - spinning jenny

* John Harington, (1561-1612), England - the flush toilet

* John Harrison, (1693-1776), England - marine chronometer

* Victor Hasselblad, (1906-1978), Sweden - invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera

* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965-1039), Iraq - camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass

* Robert A. Heinlein, (1907-1988), U.S. - waterbed

* Jozef Karol Hell, (1713-1789), Slovakia - the water pillar

* Rudolf Hell, (1901-2002), Germany - the Hellschreiber

* Joseph Henry, (1797-1878), Scotland/U.S. - electromagnetic relay

* Heron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt - usually credited with invention of the aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier

* John Herschel, (1792-1871), England - photographic fixer (hypo)

* William Herschel, (1738-1822), England - infrared

* Heinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), Germany - radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation

* George de Hevesy, (1885-1966), Hungary - radioactive tracer

* Rowland Hill, (1795-1879), UK - postage stamp

* Maurice Hilleman (1919-2005) vaccines agains childhood diseases

* Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868-1949), Germany - Aspirin

* Herman Hollerith, (1860-1929), U.S. - recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards

* Nick Holonyak, (1928- ), U.S. - LED (Light Emitting Diode)

* Robert Hooke, (1635-1703), England - balance wheel, iris diaphragm

* Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926-), U.S. - computerized telephone switching system

* Frank Hornby, (1863-1936), England - invented Meccano

* Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801-1887), Netherlands - cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk

* Elias Howe, (1819-1867), U.S. - sewing machine

* Muhammad Husayn, (fl.17th century), Persia/Iran - cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass

* Christiaan Huygens, (1629-1695), Netherlands - pendulum clock

* John Wesley Hyatt, (1837-1920), U.S. - celluloid manufacturing.

I

* Sumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japan - Carbon nanotubes

* Gavriil Ilizarov, (1921-1992), Russia - Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis

* Sergey Ilyushin, (1894-1977), Russia - Il-series aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)

* János Irinyi, (1817-1895), Hungary - noiseless match

* Aleksei Isaev, (1908-1971), Russia - first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)

J

* Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100-1150), Islamic Spain - portable celestial globe

* Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), (c. 721-815), Persia/Iran - pure distillation, liquefaction, purification, retort, mineral acids, nitric and sulfuric acids, hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax, pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure mercury and sulfur, plated mail

* Moritz von Jacobi, (1801-1874), Germany/Russia - electrotyping, electric boat

* Karl Jatho, (1873-1933), Germany - aeroplane

* Al-Jazari, (1136-1206), Iraq - crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock, weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination, static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand, intermittency, linkage

* Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisia - sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs

* György Jendrassik, (1898-1954), Hungary - turboprop

* Charles Francis Jenkins, (1867-1934) - television and movie projector (Phantoscope)

* Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864-1943), Sweden - Gauge blocks

* Johan Petter Johansson, (1853-1943), Sweden - the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner

* Nancy Johnson, U.S. - American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)

* Scott A. Jones, (1960-), U.S. - created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.

* Whitcomb Judson, (1836-1909), U.S. - zipper

[edit] K

* Mikhail Kalashnikov, (1919-), Russia - AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)[1]

* Dean Kamen, (1951-), U.S. - Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device

* Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853-1926), Netherlands - liquify helium

* Nikolay Kamov, (1902-1973), Russia - armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters

* Pyotr Kapitsa, (1894-1984), Russia - first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions

* Georgii Karpechenko, (1899-1941), Russia - rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)

* Jamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380-1429), Persia/Iran - plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer

* Yevgeny Kaspersky, (1965-), Russia - Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products

* Adolphe Kégresse, (1879-1943), France/Russia - Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission

* Mstislav Keldysh, (1911-1978), Latvia/Russia - co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov

* John Harvey Kellogg, (1852-1943), cornflake breakfasts

* John George Kemeny, (1926-1992), Hungary - co-inventor of BASIC

* Alexander Kemurdzhian, (1921-2003), Russia - first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)

* Kerim Kerimov, (1917-2003), Azerbaijan and Russia - co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station

* Charles F. Kettering, (1876-1958), U.S. - invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more

* Khalid, (fl.9th century), Ethiopia - coffee

* Fazlur Khan, (1929-1982), Bangladesh - structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers

* Yulii Khariton, (1904-1996), Russia - chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb

* Anatoly Kharlampiev, (1906-1979), Russia - Sambo (martial art)

* Al-Khazini, (fl.1115-1130), Persia/Iran - hydrostatic balance

* Konstantin Khrenov, (1894-1984), Russia - underwater welding

* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940-1000), Persia/Iran - astronomical sextant

* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran - modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant, shadow square

* Erhard Kietz, (1909-1982), Germany & U.S.A. - patented signal improvements for video transmissions Erhard Kietz Patents

* Jack Kilby, (1923-2005), U.S. - patented the first integrated circuit

* Al-Kindi (Alkindus), (801-873), Iraq/Yemen - ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis

* Fritz Klatte, (1880-1934), Germany - vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride

* Margaret E. Knight, (1838-1914), U.S. - machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags

* Ivan Knunyants, (1906-1990), Armenia/Russia - capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6

* Robert Koch, (1843-1910), Germany - method for culturing bacteria on solid media

* Willem Johan Kolff, (1911-2009), Netherlands - artificial kidney hemodialysis machine

* Rudolf Kompfner, (1909-1977), U.S. - Traveling-wave tube

* Konstantin Konstantinov, (1817 or 1819-1871), Russia - device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine

* Sergey Korolyov, (1907-1966), Ukraine/Russia - first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)

* Nikolai Korotkov, (1874-1920), Russia - auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement

* Semen Korsakov, (1787-1853), Russia - punched card for information storage

* Mikhail Koshkin, (1898-1940), Russia - T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[2]

* Ognjeslav Kostović, (1851-1916), Serbia/Russia - arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)

* Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872-1944), Russia - knapsack parachute, drogue parachute

* Alexei Krylov, (1863-1945), Russia - gyroscopic damping of ships

* Ivan Kulibin, (1735-1818), Russia - egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical telegraph

* Igor Kurchatov, (1903-1960), Russia - first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships

* Raymond Kurzweil, (1948-), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner

* Stephanie Kwolek, (1923-), U.S. - Kevlar

* John Howard Kyan (1774-1850), Ireland - The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation

L

* Dmitry Lachinov, (1842-1902), Russia - mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser

* René Laënnec, (1781-1826), France - stethoscope

* Lala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe

* Georges Lakhovsky, (1869-1942), Russia/U.S. - Multiple Wave Oscillator

* Hedy Lamarr, (1913-2000), Austria and U.S. - Spread spectrum radio

* Edwin H. Land, (1909-1991), U.S. - Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera

* Samuel P. Langley, (1834-1906), U.S. - bolometer

* Irving Langmuir, (1851-1957), U.S. - gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding

* Lewis Latimer, (1848-1928), - Invented the modern day light bulb

* Gustav de Laval, (1845-1913), Sweden - invented the milk separator and the milking machine

* Semyon Lavochkin, (1900-1960), Russia - La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut

* John Bennet Lawes, (1814-1900), England - superphosphate or chemical fertilizer

* Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia - Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history

* Sergei Lebedev, (1874-1934), Russia - commercially viable synthetic rubber

* Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723), Netherlands - development of the microscope

* Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822-1900), Belgium - internal combustion engine, motorboat

* R. G. LeTourneau, (1888-1969), U.S.- electric wheel, motor scraper, mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers

* Willard Frank Libby, (1908-1980), U.S. - radiocarbon dating

* Justus von Liebig, (1803-1873), Germany - nitrogen-based fertilizer

* Otto Lilienthal, (1848-1896), Germany - hang glider

* Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862-1931), Sweden - Kerosene stove operated by compressed air

* Hans Lippershey, (1570-1619), Netherlands - telescope

* Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan Fyodorovich and Nazar Fyodorovich, Russia - samovar (the first documented makers)

* William Howard Livens, (1889-1964), England - chemical warfare - Livens Projector.

* Alexander Lodygin, (1847-1923), Russia - electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament

* Mikhail Lomonosov, (1711-1765), Russia - night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt

* Yury Lomonosov, (1876-1952), Russia/United Kingdom - first successful mainline diesel locomotive

* Aleksandr Loran, (1849 - after 1911), Russia - fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher

* Oleg Losev, (1903-1942), Russia - light-emitting diode, crystadine

* Archibald Low, (1882-1956), Britain - Pioneer of radio guidance systems

* Auguste and Louis Lumière, France - Cinématographe

* Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy, (1909-2001), Russia - Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project

* Ignacy Łukasiewicz, (1822-1882), Poland - modern kerosene lamp

* Giovanni Luppis, (1813-1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) - self-propelled torpedo

* Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl.1589-1590), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe

* Arkhip Lyulka, (1908-1984), Russia - first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines

M

* Ma Jun, (c. 200-265), China - South Pointing Chariot (see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms

* Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany - Orbitrap mass spectrometer

* Stepan Makarov, (1849-1904), Russia - Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice

* Nestor Makhno, (1888-1934), Ukraine/Russia - tachanka

* Charles Macintosh, (1766-1843), Scotland - waterproof raincoat, life vest

* Victor Makeev, (1924-1985), Russia - first submarine-launched ballistic missile

* Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896-1964), Russia - Maksutov telescope

* Sergey Malyutin, (1859-1937), Russia - designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)

* Al-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq - singing bird automata, terrestrial globe

* Boris Mamyrin, (1919-2007), Russia - reflectron (ion mirror)

* George William Manby, (1765-1854), England - Fire extinguisher

* Guglielmo Marconi, (1874-1937), Italy - radio telegraphy

* John Landis Mason, (1826-1902), U.S. - Mason jars

* Henry Maudslay, (1771-1831), England - screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer

* Hiram Maxim, (1840-1916), USA born, England - First self-powered machine gun

* James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotland - color photography

* Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, (9th century), Iraq - syringe, hypodermic needle, cataract extraction, injection, suction

* John McAdam, (1756-1836), Scotland - improved "macadam" road surface

* Elijah McCoy, (1843-1929), Canada - Displacement lubricator

* Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, (1845-1916), Russia - probiotics

* Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817-1880), France - margarine

* Dmitri Mendeleev, (1834-1907), Russia - Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)

* Antonio Meucci, (1808-1889), Italy - telephone (prototype)

* Edouard Michelin, (1859-1940), France - pneumatic tire

* Anthony Michell, (1870-1959), Australia - tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine

* Artem Mikoyan, (1905-1970), Armenia/Russia - MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)

* Alexander Mikulin, (1895-1985), Russia - Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank

* Mikhail Mil, (1909-1970), Russia - Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)

* Pavel Molchanov, (1893-1941), Russia - radiosonde

* Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), U.S. - modern anti-perspirant deodorant

* Montgolfier brothers, (1740-1810) and (1745-1799), France - hot-air balloon

* John J. Montgomery, (1858-1911), U.S. - heavier-than-air gliders

* Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819-1885), Spain - steam powered submarine

* Robert Moog, (1934-2005), U.S. - the Moog synthesizer

* Samuel Morey, (1762-1843), U.S. - internal combustion engine

* Garrett A. Morgan, (1877-1963), U.S. - inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.

* Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), U.S. - telegraph

* Alexander Morozov, (1904-1979), Russia - T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34

* Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, (1849-1902), Russia - Mosin-Nagant rifle

* Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s - 1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?-1750), Russia - Tsar Bell

* Vera Mukhina, (1889-1953), Russia - welded sculpture

* Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946-1000), Palestine - restaurant

* Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl.11th century), Islamic Spain - geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearing

* William Murdoch, (1754-1839), Scotland - Gas lighting

* Jozef Murgas, (1864-1929), Slovakia - inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)

* Evgeny Murzin, (1914-1970), Russia - ANS synthesizer

* Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan (810-873), Iraq - mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp, self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player, programmable machine

* Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692-1761), Netherlands - Leyden jar, pyrometer

* Eadweard Muybridge, (1830-1904), England - motion picture

N

* Alexander Nadiradze, (1914-1987), Georgia/Russia - first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)

* John Napier, (1550-1617), Scotland - logarithms

* James Naismith, (1861-1939), Canadian born, USA - invented basketball and American football helmet

* Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japan - floppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump, taxicab meter

* Andrey Nartov, (1683-1756), Russia - first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight

* James Nasmyth, (1808-1890), Scotland - steam hammer

* Nebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630-562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw, screwpump

* Sergey Nepobedimiy, (1921-), Russia - first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry

* John von Neumann, (1903-1957), Hungary - Von Neumann computer architecture

* Isaac Newton,(1642-1727), England - reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)

* Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765-1833), France - photography

* Nikolai Nikitin, (1907-1973), Russia - prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)

* Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, (1860-1940), Germany - Nipkow disk

* Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926-), Japan - Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode

* Alfred Nobel, (1833-1896), Sweden - dynamite

* Ludvig Nobel, (1831-1888), Sweden/Russia - first successful oil tanker

* Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858-1939), Sweden - the blowtorch

O

* Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845-1903), Sweden/Russia - the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator

* Lucien Olivier, (1838-1883), Belgium or France / Russia - Russian salad (Olivier salad)

* J. Robert Oppenheimer, (1904-1967), United States - Atomic bomb

* Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, (1858-1923) American - weapon sights & mining

* Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777-1851), Denmark - electromagnetism, aluminum

* Elisha Otis, (1811-1861), U.S. - passenger elevator with safety device

* William Oughtred, (1575-1660), England - slide rule

P

* Larry Page, (1973-), U.S. - with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine

* Alexey Pajitnov, (born 1956), Russia/U.S. - Tetris

* Helge Palmcrantz, (1842-1880), Sweden - the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun

* Daniel David Palmer, (1845-1913), Canada - chiropractic

* Luigi Palmieri, (1807-1896), Italy - seismometer

* Alexander Parkes, (1831-1890), England - celluloid

* Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854-1931), British - steam turbine

* Spede Pasanen, (1930-2001), Finland - ski jumping sling

* Blaise Pascal, (1623-1662), France - barometer, Pascal's calculator

* Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788-1862), Sweden - safety match

* Les Paul, (1915-2009), U.S. - multitrack recording

* Nicolae Paulescu, (1869-1931), Romania - insulin

* Ivan Pavlov, (1849-1936), Russia, - classical conditioning

* Arthur Paul Pedrick, England - chromatically selective cat flap and others

* John Pemberton, (1831-1888), U.S. - Coca-Cola

* Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871-1922), Croatia - mechanical pencil

* Henry Perky, (1843-1906), U.S. - shredded wheat

* Stephen Perry, England - rubber band

* Vladimir Petlyakov, (1891-1942), Russia - heavy bomber

* Peter Petroff, (1919-2004), Bulgaria - digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments

* Fritz Pfleumer, (1881-1945), Germany - magnetic tape

* Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, (1810-1881), Russia - early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations

* Fyodor Pirotsky, (1845-1898), Russia - electric tram

* Arthur Pitney, (1871-1933), United States - postage meter

* Joseph Plateau, (1801-1883), Belgium - phenakistiscope (stroboscope)

* Baltzar von Platen, (1898-1984), Sweden - gas absorption refrigerator

* James Leonard Plimpton, U.S. - roller skates

* Ivan Plotnikov, (1902-1995), Russia - kirza leather

* Petrache Poenaru, (1799-1875), Romania - fountain pen

* Christopher Polhem, (1661-1751), Sweden - the modern padlock

* Nikolai Polikarpov, (1892-1944), Russia - Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)

* Ivan Polzunov, (1728-1766), Russia - first two-cylinder steam engine

* Mikhail Pomortsev, (1851-1916), Russia - nephoscope

* Olivia Poole, (1889-1975), U.S., - the Jolly Jumper baby harness

* Alexander Popov, (1859-1906), Russia - lightning detector (the first lightning prediction system and radio receiver), co-inventor of radio

* Nikolay Popov, (1931-2008), Russia - first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)

* Aleksandr Porokhovschikov, (1892-1941), Russia - Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)

* Joseph Priestley, (1733-1804), England - soda water

* Alexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894-1974, Russia/United States of America - first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also developed air-to-air refueling

* Alexander Prokhorov, (1916-2002), Russia - co-inventor of laser and maser

* Petro Prokopovych, (1775-1850), Ukraine/Russia - early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties

* Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, (1863-1944), Russia/France - early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures

* George Pullman, (1831-1897), U.S. - Pullman sleep wagon

* Michael I. Pupin, (1858-1935), Serbia - pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator

* Tivadar Puskas, (1844-1893), Hungary - telephone exchange

[edit] R

* Mario Rabinowitz, (1936-), U.S. - solar concentrator with tracking micromirrors

* Hasan al-Rammah, (fl.1270s), Syria - purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedo

* Harun al-Rashid, (763-809), Persia/Iran - public hospital, medical school

* Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865-965), Persia/Iran - distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide

* Karl von Reichenbach, (1788-1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol

* Ira Remsen, (1846-1927), U.S. - saccharin

* Ralf Reski, (* 1958), Germany - Moss Bioreactor 1998

* Josef Ressel, (1793-1857), Czechoslovakia - ship propeller

* Charles Francis Richter, (1900-1985), U.S. - Richter magnitude scale

* Hyman George Rickover, (1900-1986), U.S. - Nuclear submarine

* John Roebuck, (1718-1794) England - lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis

* Peter I the Great, Tsar and Emperor of Russia, (1672-1725), Russia - decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet (sounding weight probe)

* Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845-1923), Germany - the X-ray machine

* Ida Rosenthal, (1886-1973), Belarus/Russia/United States - modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)

* Boris Rosing, (1869-1933), Russia - CRT television (first TV system using CRT on the receiving side)

* Eugene Roshal, (born 1972), Russia - FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver

* Ernő Rubik, (1944-), Hungary - Rubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock

* Ernst Ruska, (1906-1988), Germany - electron microscope

S

* Alexander Sablukov, (1783-1857), Russia - centrifugal fan

* Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385-1468), Turkey - illustrated surgical atlas

* Andrei Sakharov, (1921-1989), Russia - invented explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak

* Ibn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East - mechanical geared astrolabe

* Franz San Galli, (1824-1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) - radiator, modern central heating

* Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873-1932), Brazil - non-rigid airship and airplane

* Arthur William Savage, (1857-1938) - radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle

* Thomas Savery, (1650-1715), England - steam engine

* Adolphe Sax, (1814-1894), Belgium - saxophone

* Bela Schick, (1877-1967), Hungary - diphtheria test

* Pavel Schilling, (1780-1836), Estonia/Russia - first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse

* Christian Schnabel (1878-1936), German - simplistic food cutleries

* Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands - Major contributor to development of Compact Disc

* August Schrader, U.S. - Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire

* David Schwarz, (1852-1897), Croatia, - rigid ship, later called Zeppelin

* Marc Seguin, (1786-1875), France - wire-cable suspension bridge

* Henry White Seeley, (1832-1903), US-pressing iron

* Sennacherib, (705-681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) - screw pump

* Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/U.S. - inventor of the Moviola for film editing

* Mark Serrurier, (190?-1988), U.S. - Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes

* Gerhard Sessler, (1931-), Germany - foil electret microphone, silicon microphone

* Guy Severin, (1926-2008), Russia - extra-vehicular activity supporting system

* Leonty Shamshurenkov, (1687-1758), Russia - first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge

* Ibn al-Shatir, (1304-1375), Syria - "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial

* Shen Kuo, (1031-1095), China - improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra, and sighting tube

* Murasaki Shikibu, (c. 973-1025), Japan - novel, psychological novel

* Pyotr Shilovsky, (1871 - after 1924), Russia/United Kingdom - gyrocar

* Fathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal India - autocannon, multi-barrel gun

* William Bradford Shockley, (1910-1989), U.S. - co-inventor of transistor

* Henry Shrapnel, (1761-1842), England - Shrapnel shell ammunition

* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysia - cell growth in outer space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space

* Vladimir Shukhov, (1853-1939), Russia - thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot

* Augustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Germany/England - Inventor of the standard diving dress

* Werner von Siemens, (1816-1892), Germany - an electromechanical "dynamic"

* Sir William Siemens, (1823-1883), Germany - regenerative furnace

* Al-Sijzi, (c. 945-1020), Persia/Iran - heliocentric astrolabe

* Igor Sikorsky, (1889-1972), Russia/U.S. - first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters

* Kia Silverbrook, (1958-), Australia - Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor

* Vladimir Simonov, (born 1935), Russia - APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol

* Charles Simonyi, (1948-), Hungary - Hungarian notation

* Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (973-1037), Persia/Iran - steam distillation, essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial, randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium channel blocker

* Isaac Singer, (1811-1875), U.S. - sewing machine

* Nikolay Slavyanov, (1854-1897), Russia - shielded metal arc welding

* Alexander Smakula, (1900-1983), Ukraine/Russia/U.S. - anti-reflective coating

* Yefim Smolin, Russia - table-glass (stakan granyonyi)

* Igor Spassky, (1926-), Russia - Sea Launch platform

* Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860-1930), U.S. - gyroscope-guided automatic pilot

* Ladislas Starevich, (1882-1965), Russia/France - puppet animation, live-action/animated film

* Boris Stechkin, (1891-1969), Russia - co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines

* George Stephenson, (1781-1848), England - steam railway

* Simon Stevin, (1548-1620), Netherlands - land yacht

* Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790-1878), Scotland - Stirling engine

* Aurel Stodola, (1859-1942), Slovakia - gas turbines

* Aleksandr Stoletov, (1839-1896), Russia - first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect

* Levi Strauss, (1829-1902), U.S. - blue jeans

* John Stringfellow, (1799-1883), England - airplane

* Almon Strowger, (1839-1902), U.S. - automatic telephone exchange

* Su Song, (1020-1101), China - first chain drive

* Pavel Sukhoi, (1895-1975), Russia - Su-series fighter aircraft

* Simon Sunatori, (1959-), Canada - inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer

* Sushruta, (600 BC), Vedic India - inventor of Platic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty

* Joseph Swan, (1828-1914), England - Incandescent light bulb

* Percy Spencer, (1894-1970), U.S. - microwave oven

* Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903-986), Persia/Iran - timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe

* Robert Swanson, (1905-1994), Canada - Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives

* Andrei Sychra, (1773-76 - 1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent - Russian seven-string guitar

* Vladimir Syromyatnikov, (1933-2006), Russia - Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms

* Leó Szilárd, (1898-1964), Hungary/U.S. - Co-developed the atomic bomb, patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project

T

* Salih Tahtawi, (fl.1659-1660), Mughal India - seamless globe and celestial globe

* Igor Tamm, (1895-1971), Russia - co-developer of tokamak

* Taqi al-Din, (1526-1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey - steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant

* Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, (c. 1187), Middle East - counterweight trebuchet, mangonel

* Bernard Tellegen, (1900-1990), Netherlands - pentode

* Edward Teller, (1908-2003), Hungary - hydrogen bomb

* Nikola Tesla, (1856-1943), Croatian Serb, citizenship:Austrian Empire (pre-1891), American (post-1891) - Tesla Coil, induction motor, wireless communication

* Léon Theremin, (1896-1993), Russia - theremin, interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)

* Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, (1785-1870), France - Arithmometer

* Eric Tigerstedt, (1887-1925), Finland - triode vacuum tube

* Kalman Tihanyi, (1897-1947), Hungary - co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope

* Mikhail Tikhonravov, (1900-1974), Russia - co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks

* Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov, (1875-1960), Russia - feathering spectrograph

* Benjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821-1897), U.S. - sandblasting

* Tipu Sultan, (1750-1799), India - iron-cased rocket

* Fedor Tokarev, (1871-1968), Russia - TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle

* Alfred Traeger, (1895-1980), Australia - the pedal radio

* Richard Trevithick, (1771-1833), England - high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive

* Franc Trkman, (1903-1978), Slovenia - electrical switches, accessories for opening windows

* Yuri Trutnev, (1927-), Russia - co-developer of the Tsar Bomb

* Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857-1935), Russia - spaceflight

* Mikhail Tsvet, (1872-1919), Russia - chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)

* Ibn Tufail, (c. 1105-1185), Islamic Spain - philosophical novel

* Alexei Tupolev, (1925-2001), Russia - the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)

* Andrei Tupolev, (1888-1972), Russia - turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)

* Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1201-1274), Persia/Iran - observatory, research institute

* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1135-1213), Persia/Iran - linear astrolabe

U

* Lewis Urry, (1927-2004), Canada - long-lasting alkaline battery

* Vladimir Utkin, (1923-2000), Russia - railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets)

V

* Vladimir Sergeyevich Vakhmistrov, (1897-1972), Russia - first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)

* Theophilus Van Kannel, (1841-1919), United States - revolving door (1888)

* Viktor Vasnetsov, (1848-1926), Russia - budenovka military hat

* Vladimir Veksler, (1907-1966), Russia - synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron

* John Venn, (1834-1923), England - Venn diagram (1881)

* Pierre Vernier, (1580-1637), France - vernier scale (1631)

* Dmitry Vinogradov, (c.1720-5 - 1758), Russia - original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Mikhail Lomonosov)

* Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?-2006), United States - developed the first sexual assault evidence kit

* Alessandro Volta, (1745-1827), Italy - battery

* Faust Vrančić, (1551-1617), Croatia - parachute

* Traian Vuia, (1872-1950), Romania - designed, built, and tested one of the earlier aircraft in 1906. Vuia reportedly flew to a height of 1 Meter and was able to stay aloft for 20 Meters.

* Ivan Vyrodkov, (? - 1563-64), Russia - battery tower

[edit] W

* Paul Walden, (1863-1957), Latvia/Russia/Germany - Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)

* Barnes Wallis, (1887-1979), England - bouncing bomb

* Robert Watson-Watt, (1892-1973), Scotland - microwave radar

* James Watt, (1736-1819), Scotland - improved Steam engine

* Thomas Wedgwood, (1771-1805), England - first (not permanent) photograph

* Jonas Wenström, (1855-1893), Sweden - three-phase electrical power

* George Westinghouse, (1846-1914), U.S. - Air brake (rail)

* Charles Wheatstone, (1802-1875), England - concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher

* Eli Whitney, (1765-1825), U.S. - the cotton gin

* Frank Whittle, (1907-1996), England - co-inventor of the jet engine

* Otto Wichterle, (1913-1989), Czechoslovakia - invented modern contact lenses

* Paul Winchell, (1922-2005), U.S. - the artificial heart

* A. Baldwin Wood, (1879-1956), U.S. - high volume pump

* Granville Woods, (1856-1910), U.S. - the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph

* Wright brothers, Orville (1871-1948) and Wilbur (1867-1912) - U.S. - powered airplane

* Arthur Wynne, (1862-1945), England - creator of crossword puzzle

Y

* Pavel Yablochkov, (1847-1894), Russia - Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)

* Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886-1976), Japan - Yagi antenna

* Alexander Yakovlev, (1906-1989), Russia - Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)

* Khalid ibn Yazid, (635-704), Syria/Egypt - potassium nitrate

* Yi Xing, (683-727), China - astronomical clock

* Gazi Yasargil, (1925- ), Turkey - Microneurosurgery

* Arthur M. Young, (1905-1995), U.S. - the Bell Helicopter

* Vladimir Yourkevitch, (1885-1964), Russia/France/U.S. - modern ship hull design

* Sergei Yudin, (1891-1954), Russia - cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations

* Muhammad Yunus, (b. 1940), Bangladesh - microcredit, microfinance

* Abu Yaqub Yusuf, (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain - siege cannon

* Linus Yale, Jr., (1821-1868), U.S. - cylinder lock

* Linus Yale, Sr., (1797-1858), U.S. - pin tumbler lock

Z

* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), (936-1013), Islamic Spain - catgut surgical suture, various surgical instruments and dental devices

* Alexander Zalmanov, (1875-1965), Russia - turpentine bath

* Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, (1859-1917) Russia/Poland - Esperanto

* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), (1028-1087), Islamic Spain - almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe

* Yevgeny Zavoisky, (1907-1976), Russia - EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy

* Nikolay Zelinsky, (1861-1953), Russia - the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world

* Zhang Heng, (78-139), China - invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere

* Zheng He, (1371-1433), China - treasure ship

* Nikolai Zhukovsky, (1847-1921), Russia - an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank

* Ziryab, (789-857), Iraq/Syria/Tunisia/Spain - bangs, beauty parlour, cosmetology school, chemical depilatory, toothpaste, under-arm deodorant, three-course meal

* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), (1091-1161), Islamic Spain - general anaesthesia, general anaesthetic, oral anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, narcotic-soaked sponge, tracheotomy, parasitology, pharmacopoeia

* Konrad Zuse, (22 June 1910-18 December 1995), Germany - invented the first Computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)

* Vasily Zvyozdochkin, (1876-1956), Russia - matryoshka doll (together with Sergey Malyutin)

* Vladimir Zworykin, (1889-1982), Russia/U.S. - Iconoscope, kinescope.