Should you put a temp agency on your resume if you had an argument with someone at that office?

Yes, even if the temp agency didn't assign you to any projects. When you enter a temp agency and fill out the paper work, you become an on-call employee while they try to find you work. If the company you are currently applying for does an in depth background check (usually high-end corporate jobs, government jobs or jobs that require you to be bonded) sees the temp agency listed and its not on your resume, they may disqualify your resume.