What did people use before the camera?

Before the invention of photographic film (or its predecessors such as the daguerreotype), the only way to retain an image was by paintings or drawings. Some famous individuals (e.g. Pharaohs, Alexander) have been sculpted in stone, and others had lifelike masks made that show their features.

It was not until the advent of photography that detailed likenesses of people (as well as places and events) could be recorded as they actually appeared.