What diseases are caused by microbe?
Most types of diseases are caused by several types of bacteria. I hope you're referring to bacteria.
Not all diseases are caused by microbes. The theory of one microbe causing one disease was proven long ago. We know now that it is more complex that that now. To prove this, see what microbes will grow from each person who has a similar disease and if these microbes are the same microbe, this microbe caused this disease. However, the proof would need thousands of cases to "cement" the cause.
There are no diseases caused by viruses or any other microbe. Microbe-related disease is bodily imbalance inviting opportunistic microbial multiplication. The microbial multiplication is a symptom of the original imbalance (exhaustion, fatigue, injury), and can further the disease, but was not the original cause of it.
If the disease cannot be grown in laboratory medium then it is considered not to be the cause of illness, yet it is but doesnt agree with Koch's Postulate. For some diseases it is not possible or ethical to infect healthy individuals. Some diseases may be caused by mixed infection with more than one microbe.