What document freed slaves in the southern states?
The Emancipation Proclamation.
The document that President Abraham Lincoln used to free the slaves was called the Emancipation Proclamation. It freed slaves in the rebelling Southern states only, not border states. They were freed later. As Lincoln had no authority to free slaves, this was a war measure. The results were that slaves in areas captured by Union forces were freed.
The Emancipation Proclamation freed all the slaves in Confederate states. It was signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. As Lincoln had no authority in the rebelling Southern states, the document allowed military commanders to free slaves in lands they captured. Sometimes these slaves joined the Union army.