In the US, both 120v and 240v will be needed for your home, as different appliances need different voltages. Your TV needs 120V, while your electric dryer and stove will need a 120V/240V supply. If you have an electric water heater, or central AC unit, they will need a 240V supply.
No, you must break it down to a 120 volt supply.
If it is a six wire motor go to http://apps.motorboss.com/connections/108323.pdf
You will burn up your appliance!!!!!
120V takes less energy
As long as the power supply allows you to toggle between 240v and 120v input, Yes.
Definitely not - it would burn out quickly and probably cause the circuit breaker to trip as well.
It may not blow, but it will turn twice as fast and burn out very quickly. It is meant for 110 only. Check the sump pump. Some of them can be wired either 120v or 240v. If yours is like that, just wire the motor for 240v and plug it in.
The linked site has just about any connection you might need. See related links below.