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An amphibious military vehicle. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DUKW

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โˆ™ 2006-03-13 04:01:31
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Q: What is a DUKW?
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Was the DUKW a D-Day invention?

No, the DUKW was invented 2-3 years before and first used operationally in the invasion of Sicily, a year before D-Day.


What was the initials of the amphibious trucks used to identify these World War 2 vehicles?

DUKW


What type of vehicles were involved in D-Day?

Lcvp, lci, lst, dukw


What is DUKW in world war 2 means?

"DUKW" is not an acronym but a term used by the manufacturer : "D" indicated a vehicle designed in 1942 ,"U" meant "utility", "K" indicated front-wheel drive and "W" indicated two powered rear axles .


What operated on land and water during world war 2?

The DUKW and the LVT (Landing Vehicle Tracked) .


How many DUKW amphibians with 100ft ladders were built for the Pointe du Hoc D Day landings?

Three


Where was the first DUKW Company from?

The 1st Amphibious Truck Company (DUKWS) were a part of the 1st Marine Division which was based out of Camp Pendleton.


How long will it take to drive to the Bahamas from Alabama?

The Bahamas are Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. You can Not drive to an island from the mainland. Not unless you have an amphibious car, similar to the Ford DUKW used in WWII beach landings, such as Normandy, D-Day June 6, 1944. Even then, the DUKW, is only used for short trips in the ocean, not the very long distance from Alabama to the Bahamas.


Operates both on land and water?

That would be the DUKW could go in the ocean and operate on ground too. See photo links below and descriptive links too.


What operates both on land and in the water in world war 2?

The DUKW was an American cargo vehicle, based on the GMC 2-1/2 ton truck chassis, which had amphibious capability. The Ford GPA was a 4x4 utility vehicle which had enough amphibious capacity to cross rivers, ponds, and lakes - however, it was not an ocean-going vehicle. The Terrapin was the British equivalent to the DUKW, but was very problematic. The Duplex Drive Sherman was an amphibious variant of the M4 Sherman tank.


How long does it take to get to china from Ireland by car?

You can't drive the entire way - Ireland is an island, and they have yet to design an oceangoing car (even the DUKW could only traverse the calmest of seas for short distances).


When was the duck boat invented?

The Duck boats that are used by civilian tour groups today (and travel on land and in the water), were invented in 1942 for use in WWII. They were called DUKW boats and were popularly called Duck boats.


What were the strange looking amphibious trucks used in World War 2 called?

DUKW (Ducks) up to 200 of these were used in the D-Day landings. They were created by a company called GMC which now make racing pickups


What World War 2 machine operates both on land and water?

The DUKW (Known as the Duck) was an American made amphibious truck. The DD (Duplex drive) tank, a Sherman, had mixed fortunes swimming ashore on D Day.


Which amphibious vehicles were used during World War II?

There were several different amphibious vehicle that were used during World War II. The DUKW, also know as the Duck, was six wheeled vehicle that could go on land or water to transport men and supplies.


What do you get in the airfix d- day set?

WW2 British and German Infantries, Sherman Crab tank, Coastal Defence Fort, Coast of Normandy Diorama, Tiger 1 tank, AEC Matador and 5.5 gun, DUKW Amphibious Vehicle, LCM 3 Landing Craft and Sherman tank, Buffalo Amphibian and Jeep


How long would it take in a car to Australia?

Australia is an island continent. The only way to drive to Australia from a another country is to either use a car carrying ferry boat that goes to Australia, or to drive an amphibious car, such as the WW 2 Ford DUKW, and go in calm waters a short distance. Almost everyone goes to Australia by plane or boat, they don't drive there.


Landing crafts driver are called what?

Those are naval craft designed to convey troops and equipment from ship to shore. They used to be called Ducks. The designation of DUKW is not a military acronym - the name comes from the model naming terminology used by GMC; the "D" indicates a vehicle designed in 1942, the "U" meant "utility us", the "K" indicated all-wheel drive and the "W" indicated two powered rear axles.


Which beach did the royal artillery invade on d day?

my grandfather was in this unit of men and landed at sword d day +1 Units of the Royal Regiment of Artillery would have been on Gold, Juno & Sword. Omaha & Utah were US beaches. The artillery usually do not participate in the initial phase of an amphibious landing. It only comes ashore when the beaches are cleared. That is why floating tanks were used at D-Day. However, they would be sent to shore as soon as possible. During the landings at Salerno Italy, a battalion was sent ashore (maybe) on the first day and they lost one DUKW and one of their guns. Artillery was critical in the initial phase of OVERLORD. The first shots fired by Second British Army on D Day were fired by 9 (Irish) Battery of 7th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery. Gunners were among the first in action and these rounds were fired from M7 Priest self-propelled howitzers on landing craft tanks (LCTs) as they steamed towards the beach. 'Floating tanks' (presumably swimming tanks, the DD Shermans) did not provide artillery as a tank gun does not have the range of an artillery piece; their role was to work with the infantry. Ten field regiments of Royal Artillery and Royal Canadian Artillery carried out 'run in' shoots; some used Sexton self-propelled guns rather than Priests - the Sexton was a 25-pounder on a tank chassis whereas the Priest was a US 105mm howitzer on a tank chassis. In total these regiments deployed 240 guns or howitzers.


How long was a landing craft?

There is no one answer to this question. For the D-Day landings, there were several types of landing craft involved. The British and Commonwealth troops mainly used the Landing Craft Assault (LCA) which was about 41 1/2 ft long and carried up to 36 men. The American Rangers also used these craft to assault Pointe-du-Hoc. Many of the American troops came ashore in Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel (LCVP), the famed Higgins boats, which were 36 ft 3 inches long and carried 36 men or 12 men and a jeep. The Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) were also used. These craft were 45 ft long (LCM-2), 50 ft long (LCM-3), or almost 56 ft long (LCM-6). The LCM's carried between 60-100 troops. The Landing Craft Infantry Large (LCI-L) were about 158 1/2 ft long and carried 188-388 men. The DUKW, an amphibious truck, was 31 ft long and carried 25 troops. The Landing Craft Tank was between 112 to 119 ft long and carried 4 medium tanks. The Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT), the amtrac of the Marines which operated mainly in the Pacific, was 21 1/2 to 26 ft long and could carry between 20 to 30 Marines ashore.


How many ships were used in the invasion of D-Day?

== == The vast collection of ships numbered MORE THAN 5,000 ships of all kinds. It was the greatest armada of ships in all of the world's history. The list below shows the different types of Landing Vessels used used in Operation Neptune, to this must be added 864 Merchant Vessels that I am aware of. Operation Neptune Landing Ships & Craft XAP: 3 APA (Transport, Attack Type): 7 Landing Ship, Infantry (Large): 18 Landing Ship, Infantry (Medium): 3 Landing Ship, Infantry (H): 18 Landing Ship, Infantry (Small): 6 Landing Ship, H (Large): 5 Landing Ship, H (Small): 9 Landing Ship, Dock: 3 Landing Ships, Tank: 236 Landing Craft Tank: 768 Landing Craft Tank (Armoured): 48 Landing Craft Tank (Rocket): 36 Landing Craft Tank (Concrete Buster): 5 Landing Craft Tank (High Explosive): 16 Landing Craft, Infantry (Large): 208 Landing Craft, Infantry (Small): 39 Landing Craft, Headquarters: 18 Landing Craft, Flak: 29 Landing Craft, Gun (Large): 25 Landing Craft, Engineer: 6 Landing Craft, C: 9 Landing Craft, Assault: 486 Landing Craft, Assault (Hedgerow): 45 Landing Craft, Support (Large) (2): 10 Landing Craft, Support (Large) (1): 4 Landing Craft, Support (Medium): 26 Landing Craft, Support (Small): 36 Landing Craft, Vehicles and Personnel: 839 Landing Craft, Mechanised (1): 128 Landing Craft, Mechanised (3): 358 Landing Craft, P (Large) (Smoke): 144 Landing Barge, Flak: 15 Landing Barge, Vehicles (2): 228 Landing Barge, Ordnance: 100 Landing Barge, Engineer: 60 Landing Barge, Water: 20 Landing Barge, Kitchen: 10 Specialist Vehicles Landing Vehicles, Tracked: 470 Sherman Tanks (Duplex Drive): 514 DUKW: 2,583


What impact did technology play in World War 2?

The exigencies of war created an environment where industrial technology developed at a rapid rate. There is not space here to consider the important developments in Germany, Russia or USA. This precludes a study of the development of nuclear capability It can be stated, however, that technology played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. Some had begun development during the interwar years and some was developed in response to lessons learned during the war, and yet more was only beginning to be developed as the war ended. The massive research and development demands of the war had a great impact on the scientific community. Given the scope of the war and the rapid technological escalation which happened during the war, a vast array of technology was employed, as different nations and different units found themselves equipped with different levels of technology and military technology developments spanned across all areas of industry. Almost all types of technology were utilized in the efforts of the participants of participating nations. The main areas of technology which saw major developments were: * Weaponry; including ships, vehicles, aircraft, artillery, rocketry, small arms, and biological, chemical and atomic weapons. * Logistical support; including vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies, such as trains, trucks, and aircraft. * Communications and intelligence; including devices used for navigation, communication, and espionage. * Medicine; including surgical innovations, chemical medicines, and techniques * Industry; including the technologies employed at factories and production/distribution centers. Military weapons technology experienced rapid advances during World War II, and over six years there was a disorientating rate of change in combat in everything from aircraft to small arms. The war began with most armies utilizing technology that had changed little from World War I, and in some cases, had remained unchanged since the 19th century. The war began with cavalry, trenches, and World War I-era battleships, but within only six years, armies around the world had developed jet aircraft, ballistic missiles, and even atomic weapons in the case of the United States. The best jet fighters at the end of the war easily outflew any of the leading aircraft of 1939, such as the Spitfire Mark I. The early war bombers that caused such carnage would almost all have been shot down in 1945, many with two shots, by radar-aimed, proximity fuse-detonated anti-aircraft fire, just as the 1941 "invincible fighter", the Zero, had by 1944 become the "turkey" of the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". The best late-war tanks, such as the Soviet JS-3 heavy tank or the German Panther medium tank, outclassed the best tanks of 1939 such as Panzer IIIs. In the navy the battleship, long seen as the dominant element of sea power, was displaced by the greater range and striking power of the aircraft carrier. The chaotic importance of amphibious landings stimulated the Western Allies to develop the Higgins boat, a primary troop landing craft; the DUKW, a six-wheel-drive amphibious truck, amphibious tanks to enable beach landing attacks and Landing Ship, Tanks to land tanks on beaches. Increased organization and coordination of amphibious assaults coupled with the resources necessary to sustain them caused the complexity of planning to increase by orders of magnitude, thus requiring formal systematization giving rise to what has become the modern management methodology of project management by which almost all modern engineering, construction and software developments are organized. In the Western European Theatre of World War II, air power became crucial throughout the war, both in tactical and strategic operations (respectively, battlefield and long-range). Superior German aircraft, aided by ongoing introduction of design and technology innovations, allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in 1940, largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft, which in any case lagged in design and technical development during the slump in research investment after the Great Depression. Since the end of World War I, the French Air Force had been badly neglected, as military leaders preferred to spend money on ground armies and static fortifications to fight another World War I-style war. As a result, by 1940, the French Air Force had only 1562 planes and was together with 1070 RAF planes facing 5,638 Luftwaffe fighters and fighter-bombers. Most French airfields were located in north-east France, and were quickly overrun in the early stages of the campaign. The Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom possessed some very advanced fighter planes, such as Spitfires and Hurricanes, but these were not useful for attacking ground troops on a battlefield, and the small number of planes dispatched to France with the British Expeditionary Force were destroyed fairly quickly. Subsequently, the Luftwaffe was able to achieve air superiority over France in 1940, giving the German military an immense advantage in terms of reconnaissance and intelligence. German aircraft rapidly achieved air superiority over France in early 1940, allowing the Luftwaffe to begin a campaign of strategic bombing against British cities. With France out of the war, German bomber planes based near the English Channel were able to launch raids on London and other cities during the Blitz, with varying degrees of success. After World War I, the concept of massed aerial bombing-the "The bomber will always get through"-had become very popular with politicians and military leaders seeking an alternative to the carnage of trench warfare, and as a result, the air forces of Britain, France, and Germany had developed fleets of bomber planes to enable this (France's bomber wing was severely neglected, whilst Germany's bombers were developed in secret as they were explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles). British long-range bomber planes such as the Short Stirling had been designed before 1939 for strategic flights and given a large armament, but their technology still suffered from numerous flaws. The smaller and shorter ranged Bristol Blenheim, the RAF's most-used bomber, was defended by only one hydraulically operated machine-gun turret, and whilst this appeared sufficient, it was soon revealed that the turret was a pathetic defence against squadrons of German fighter planes. Despite the abilities of Allied bombers, though, Germany was not quickly crippled by Allied air raids. At the start of the war the vast majority of bombs fell miles from their targets, as poor navigation technology ensured that Allied airmen frequently could not find their targets at night. The bombs used by the Allies were very high-tech devices, and mass production meant that the precision bombs were often made sloppily and so failed to explode. German industrial production actually rose continuously from 1940 to 1945, despite the best efforts of the Allied air forces to cripple industry. Significantly, the Bomber Offensive kept the revolutionary Type XXI U-Boat from entering service during the war. Moreover, Allied air raids had a serious propaganda impact on the German government, all prompting Germany to begin serious development on air defence technology-in the form of fighter planes. The Jet aircraft age began during the war with the development of the Heinkel He 178, the first true turbojet. Late in the war the Germans brought in the first operational Jet fighter, the Messerschmitt Me 262. However, despite their technological edge, German jets were overwhelmed by Allied air superiority, frequently being destroyed on or near the airstrip. Other jet aircraft, such as the British Gloster Meteor, which flew missions but never saw combat, did not significantly distinguish themselves from top-line piston-driven aircraft. Aircraft saw rapid and broad development during the war to meet the demands of aerial combat and address lessons learned from combat experience. From the open cockpit airplane to the sleek jet fighter, many different types were employed, often designed for very specific missions. The Matilda Mk I tanks of the British Army were also designed for infantry support and were protected by thick armour. This was ideal for trench warfare, but made the tanks painfully slow in open battles. Their light cannons and machine-guns were usually unable to inflict serious damage on German vehicles. The exposed caterpillar tracks were easily broken by gunfire, and the Matilda tanks had a tendency to incinerate their crews if hit, as the petrol tanks were located on the top of the hull. By contrast the Infantry tank Matilda II fielded in lesser numbers was largely invulnerable to German gunfire and its gun was able to punch through the German tanks. However French and British tanks were at a disadvantage compared to the air supported German armoured assaults, and a lack of armoured support contributed significantly to the rapid Allied collapse in 1940. World War II marked the first full-scale war where mechanization played a significant role. Most nations did not begin the war equipped for this. Even the vaunted German Panzer forces relied heavily on non-motorised support and flank units in large operations. While Germany recognized and demonstrated the value of concentrated use of mechanized forces, they never had these units in enough quantity to supplant traditional units. However, the British also saw the value in mechanization. For them it was a way to enhance an otherwise limited manpower reserve. America as well sought to create a mechanized army. For the United States, it was not so much a matter of limited troops, but instead a strong industrial base that could afford such equipment on a great scale. The most visible vehicles of the war were the tanks, forming the armored spearhead of mechanized warfare. Their impressive firepower and armor made them the premier fighting machine of ground warfare. However, even more important to a fighting mechanized army were the large number of trucks and lighter vehicles that kept the army moving. Naval warfare changed dramatically during World War II, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines on the course of the war. The development of new ships during the war was somewhat limited due to the protracted time period needed for production, but important developments were often retrofitted to older vessels. Advanced German submarine types came into service too late and after nearly all the experienced crews had been lost. The German U-boats were used primarily for stopping/destroying the resources from the United States and Canada coming across the Atlantic. Submarines were critical in the Pacific Ocean as well as in the Atlantic Ocean. Japanese defenses against Allied submarines were ineffective. Much of the merchant fleet of the Empire of Japan, needed to supply its scattered forces and bring supplies such as petroleum and food back to the Japanese Archipelago, was sunk. This kept them from training adequate replacements for their lost aircrews and even forced the navy to be based near its oil supply. Among the warships sunk by submarines was the war's largest aircraft carrier, the Shinano. The most important shipboard advances were in the field of anti-submarine warfare. Driven by the desperate necessity of keeping Britain supplied, technologies for the detection and destruction of submarines was advanced at high priority. The use of ASDIC (SONAR) became widespread and so did the installation of shipboard and airborne radar. The actual weapons; the guns, mortars, artillery, bombs, and other devices, were as diverse as the participants and objectives. A bewildering array were developed during the war to meet specific needs that arose, but many traced their development to prior to World War II. and were aimed with the aid of radar and airplanes. Torpedoes began to use magnetic detonators; compass directed, programmed and even acoustic guidance systems; and improved propulsion. Fire-control systems continued to develop for ships' guns and came into use for torpedoes and anti-aircraft fire. Human torpedoes and the Hedgehog (weapon) were also developed. * Armour weapons: The Tank destroyer, Specialist Tanks for Combat engineering including mine clearing Flail tanks, Flame tank, and amphibious designs * Aircraft: Glide bombs - the first "smart bombs", such as the Fritz X anti-shipping missile, had wire or radio remote control; the world's first jet fighter (Messerschmitt 262) and jet bomber (Arado 234), the world's first operational military helicopters (Flettner Fl 282), the world's first rocket-powered fighter (Messerschmitt 163) * Missiles: The Pulse jet powered V-1 flying bomb was the world's first cruise missile, Rockets progressed enormously: V-2 rocket, Katyusha rocket artillery and air launched rockets. * HEAT, and HESH anti-armour warheads. * Proximity fuze for shells, bombs and rockets. This fuze is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it, so a direct hit is not required and time/place of closest approach does not need to be estimated. Magnetic torpedoes and mines also had a sort of proximity fuse. * Guided weapons (by radio or trailing wires): glide bombs, crawling bombs, rockets. * Self-guiding weapons: torpedoes (sound seeking, compass guided and looping), V1 missile (compass and timer guided) * Aiming devices for bombs, torpedoes, artillery and machine guns, using special purpose mechanical and electronic analog and (perhaps) digital "computers". The mechanical analog Norden bomb sight is a well known example. * Napalm was developed, but did not see wide use until the Korean War * Plastic explosives like Nobel 808, Hexoplast 75, Compositions C and C2 Often too overlooked by the general public, the state of small arms technology made a huge leap during the period around the war. New production methods for weapons such as stamping, riveting, and welding came into being to produce the number of arms needed. While this had been tried before, during World War I, it had resulted in quite possibly the worst firearm ever adopted by any military for use: the French Chauchat light machine gun. Design and production methods had advanced enough to manufacture weapons of reasonable reliability such as the PPSh-41, PPS-42, Sten, MP 40, M3 Grease Gun, Gewehr 43, Thompson submachine gun and the M1 Garand rifle. World War II saw the birth of the reliable semi-automatic rifle, such as the American M1 Garand and, more importantly, that of the first real assault rifles. The Germans essentially created and pioneered the idea of an "assault rifle" or sturmgewehr, coining the name for the species in the process. Earlier renditions that hinted at this idea were that of the employment of the Browning Automatic Rifle and 1916 Fedorov Avtomat in a walking fire tactic in which men would advance on the enemy position showering it with a hail of lead. The Germans first developed the FG 42 for its paratroopers in the assault and later the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG 44), the world's first true assault rifle. The FG 42 would probably hold this place but for its use of a full powered rifle cartridge making it hard to control by an unskilled operator. During the conflict, many new models of bolt-action rifles were produced as a result of lessons learned from the First World War with the designs of a number of bolt-action infantry rifles being modified in order to speed up production as well as to make the rifles more compact and easier to handle. Examples of bolt-action rifles that were used during World War II include the German Mauser Kar98k, the British Lee-Enfield No.4, and the Springfield M1903A3. During the course of World War II, bolt-action rifles and carbines were modified even further to meet new forms of warfare the armies of certain nations faced e.g. urban warfare and jungle warfare. Examples include the Soviet Mosin-Nagant M1944 carbine, which were developed by the Soviets as a result of the Red Army's experiences with urban warfare e.g. the Battle of Stalingrad, and the British Lee-Enfield No.5 carbine, that were developed for British and Commonwealth forces fighting the Japanese in South-East Asia and the Pacific. When World War II ended in 1945, the small arms that were used in the conflict still saw action in the hands of the armed forces of various nations and guerrilla movements during and after the Cold War era. Nations like the Soviet Union and the United States provided many surplus, World War II-era small arms to a number of nations and political movements during the Cold War era as a pretext to providing more modern infantry weapons. Besides seeing conflict long after World War II ended, the small arms of World War II are now considered collector's items with many civilian firearm owners and collectors around the world due to their historical nature, low cost (due to many of these firearms now appearing on the firearms market in large numbers over the past decade), and their durability. Electronics rose to prominence quickly in World War II. While prior to the war few electronic devices were seen as important pieces of equipment, by the middle of the war such instruments as radar and ASDIC (sonar) had proven their value. Additionally, equipment designed for communications and the interception of those communications was becoming critical. Digital electronics, particularly, were also given a massive boost by war-related research. The pressing need for numerous time-critical calculations for various projects like code-breaking and ballistics tables accentuated the need for the development of electronic computer technology. The semi-secret ENIAC and the super-secret Colossus demonstrated that devices using thousands of valves (vacuum tubes) could be reliable enough to be useful, paving the way for the post-war development of stored program computers. The United Kingdom and the United States were the leaders in electronics. The US center for basic radar development was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory. The British developed the magnetron which is now used in microwave ovens. Electronic and optical countermeasures such as jamming and radar absorbing material were developed. While the war stimulated many technologies, such as radio and radar development, it slowed down related yet non-critical fields such as television and radio. Technological escalation during World War II was more profound than any other period in human history. More new inventions, certainly as measured by such means as patent applications for dual-use technology and weapon contracts issued to private contractors, were deployed to the task of killing humans more effectively, and to a much lesser degree, avoiding being killed. Unlike technological escalation during World War I, it was generally believed that speed and firepower, not defenses or entrenchments, would bring the war to a quicker end. This was perhaps the first war where military operations were aimed at the research efforts of the enemy e.g. 1. The exfiltration of Niels Bohr from German-occupied Denmark to Britain in 19432. The sabotage of Norwegian heavy water production3. The bombing of Peenemunde Military operations were also conducted in order to obtain intelligence on the enemy's technology e.g. the Bruneval Raid for German radar and Operation Most III for the German V-2. The introduction of new weapons was so much a feature of the war that German propaganda featured wonder weapons in the pipeline as a reason why Germany would eventually win the war. In that sense, technological advance prolonged the war. Short history tends to simplify to the point of distortion. To correct this let us summarise some factors that inhibited technological innovation in WWII. # Any innovation tended to interrupt production. In war, numbers count. It was always difficult to innovate if the war might be won or lost before the innovation bore fruit. For example, the cavity magnetron was hugely important to the allies but the Germans were so committed to the Lichtenstein radar that they seem never to have deployed their own cavity magnetrons. # In war, it was often remarkably difficult to know whether a new weapon was good, or bad; the first US magnetic torpedoes usually failed to explode even if they hit the enemy ship. # Even a sophisticated technology might be answered by a crude and simple device e.g.The Germans had an acoustic homing torpedo, which was easily countered by an acoustic mechanism towed behind allied warships. # Innovations might be held back from use because of the fear of what the enemy might do. The Germans had a technological lead on poison gas, which they did not exploit. Had they known the war might have ended differently. As it was, they were deterred by the fear of allied reprisals. Both sides held back from using chaff for some time before the British used it. # A very great amount of the innovation on the allied side was necessitated by the needs of amphibious warfare, a need which hardly existed for the Germans. # A lot on innovation was of the stop-gap variety. This especially true in armoured warfare as there was an escalation between gun and armour resulting in large production facilities for producing obsolete tanks. These were used by placing large guns on the chassis of obsolete tanks to produce a weapon variously known as self-propelled artillery, an assault gun or a tank destroyer. Stop-gap solutions could be rather desperate such as the single use fighter aircraft. # There was remarkably little direct copying of weapons by one side from the other. Even where such copying existed, as with the bazooka, the calibre was increased because each side had a differing military requirement.