Although there are a lot of interesting theories (“departure,” “deliverance,” and “doom,” to name a few), it doesn't really stand for anything. The term "D-Day" has been used by the U.S. military since at least 1918 as an “alliterative placeholder” for the day an operation is supposed to take place. This means that although we use it to refer to the invasion of Normandy in World War II, there's actually been a lot of D-Days.
The term was part of a larger system for keeping track of dates: D-3, for example, means three days before D-Day, and D+3 means three days after.
"D-Day" and "H-Hour" are general terms used for the day and hour to mark the beginning of an important event.
By far the most well-known D-Day is June 6, 1944, when the Allied invasion of German-occupied France began in WWII.
The "D" was used to mark the day that a particular operation was to begin. Each operation had a D-day and an H-hour.
Because D-Day of Operation Overlord was the largest amphibious assault in military history, it became the popular expression to refer to June 6, 1944, and was not used to mark the first day of an operation thereafter - as far as I know. It basically took on the persona that the phrase "9/11" has taken to refer to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon.
General Eisenhwer and Winston Churchill may have tried to give the "D" an actual meaning for the benefit of the press and the civilians, but previous to that, it did not stand for anything except "day" (as noted previously).
Indeed, D = Day and H = Hour, but I will elaborate a little: The invasion (or any major operation) was planned way in advance without a date being assigned for commencement. This was done for security reasons and to keep the element of surprise so that the enemy response would be minimal. For purposes of planning, you assumed the operation would start at D-Day and H-hour, with the day and time to be determined later. Then you can plan for how things will proceed, starting from Day 1 - 0 hour and start counting as in D+1 day, D+2 day, etc. Only at the last minute did anyone know what day the whole thing would actually take place.
With June 6, 1944, for example, they had to wait on the weather, amongst other things.
The earliest use of the word chalet in English was in 1782.
It was derived from the Swiss (and French) chalet, which meant "herdsman's hut, Alpine cottage". This was probably a diminutive of the Old French chasel, "farmhouse, house, abode, hut".
The origins before Old French are even more tenuous, but chalet is attributed to the Vulgar Latin casalis"belonging to a house", from the Latin casa, "house", or the Old Provincial cala, "a small shelter for ships.
In military terminology, an "amphibious assault" refers specifically to the movement of troops from a water-borne transport onto land. Historically, this has exclusively meant the use of small boats and similar craft to move troops and equipment from large vessels onto a beach (or, rarely, a prepared dock such as at a port), which may or may not be actively defended.
In modern times, it often includes some component of helicopter-borne troop movements. Thus, a modern amphibious assault generally consists of small units of troops being ferried ashore in special-purpose assault watercraft or hovercraft in combination with some troops being landed immediately behind the beaches by helicopters or parachute. The key portion of amphibious assault is the "over-the-beach" portion, where the vast majority of the fighting force comes ashore. If the attack primarily relies on other methods of transporting troops to the combat zone, then it is called some other form of "assault" (e.g. airborne assault, airmobile assault, etc.)
The battle of Normandy caused the death of an estimated 14,000 civilians in just the three departments of Basse Normandie, that is to say:
In absolute value, it is the town of Caen which suffered the most, with 2,000 killed, that is to say 3.5 % of its population.
According the number of inhabitants, other communities suffered losses proportionally higher:
The sad record is held by the village of Evrecy, in the west of Caen, where the air raid of the night from the 14 to June 15 caused the death of 130 people out of the 400 inhabitants of the borough.
It appears that on June 6, "the D Day" was also the most tragic for the Bas Normands with 2,200 dead.
On June 7, one counts more 1,600 deaths.
Source: GARNIER Bernard, QUELLIEN Jean et l'Université Inter-Ages, Les victimes civiles du Calvados dans la bataille de Normandie, 1er mars 1944 - 31 décembre 1945, Centre de Recherche d'Histoire Quantitative, Mémorial de Caen, Editions du Lys, Caen, 1995, 495 p.
Here is another opinion that includes the entire Allied invasion and occupation:
While it is difficult, but not impossible, to research the exact numbers for French women and children, here is some basic information (with credit to Mr. William Henry Harris):
"Before, during and after the D-Day landings the Allies dropped over 590,000 tons of bombs on France -- equal to almost half the amount of bombs dropped on Germany during the entire course of the war.
"Over 1 million French homes were destroyed by Allied bombing attacks and some cities such as Caen, Saint-Lo, Carentan, Montbourg and Valognes ceased to exist.
"For every German who lost his life resisting the 'Allied' invasion of France, the lives of four Frenchmen were taken. Whereas German troops had wandered at will during their occupation of France, the British and the Americans were repeatedly confined to barracks or had their movements restricted because of the French resistance to their presence on French soil."
Three BIG events that led up to D-Day (The Normandy Invasion as most think of it) were these:
The number of Allied combat casualties on D-Day is approximated at
10,000, of whom 2,500 died.
Here is the breakdown of the casualties:
British - 2700
Canadians - 946
Americans - 6603
15,000-20,000 French civilians died with an unknown number of casualties.
Britain: 2,700 killed
United States: 1,465 killed
Canada: 500 killed
Germany: 4,000 killed
Estimated at 10,000; exact figures not available
However, the allies attacked in greater numbers, and lost far less troops than the Germans, percentage wise. There were only 10,000 German troops guarding the coastline. Compare that to the 175,000 allied troops who attacked.
Higgens boats and AmTracks. AmTrack is short for amphibious tractor
No! not that i can find
Ans 2 - You can guarantee there WILL be a list. - Armies are great at keeping lists. I think you may find this list at a US Army Records Office, possibly this one -
U.S. Army Human Resources Command, Army Reserve
1 Reserve Way
St. Louis, MO 63132-5200
"D-day" is a military term used to designate the start of an operation.
The most famous/notable D-Day was June 6, 1944 when the Allied troops stormed the beaches of Normandy, France. This is known as Operation Overlord.
VE Day (or, more properly, V-E Day) was and still is a celebration of the Victory in Europe during World War II. It is celebrated on 8 May, since 8 May 1945 was the date the Allied Forces accepted the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers in Europe.
Related is V-J Day (Celebration of the unconditional surrender of the Japanese forces) which is celebrated at different days in different countries.
Well friends is proper is a proper English term...
Some slang words could be: Mates, chums, buddies, homies...
Normandy is located in France (Western Europe). It is a historical region which is located in the north-west of this country, between "French Brittany" and "Ile de France" (The Paris region). It is named after the "Normands" (North-Man) who where affiliated with Viking fighters and have been settling down in France in the IXth century.
On June 6th 1944 (also known as "D-Day"), the Allied Forces landed on the beaches of Normandy to free Europe from the Nazi rule.
The Normandy Campaign to liberate Europe from Nazi control began the 6th of June 1944 (D-Day) and was known by the code name of 'Operation Overlord' which was under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower .
D-Day was important militarily and psychologically as it was seen as the real turning point of the war. Allied Armies back on the occupied soil of France meant a huge lift in morale -especially to the French ! Also, as very few wars can progress without soldiers being on the ground, this sudden invasion of huge numbers of Allied troops, with effective armour and artillery was devastating to the German occupation forces.
No single list of the 70,000 who served on Iwo Jima exists.
Holland "Howlin' Mad" Smith commanded the landing.
Sgt. Michael Strank, Cpl. Harlon Block, PFC Franklin Sousley, PFC Rene Gagnon, PFC Ira Hayes and Navy Corpsman PM2 John Bradley are all known to have been there since Joe Rosenthal of the Associated Press is known to have taken their picture at the top of Mount Suribachi.
Twenty-two Marines can be readily named from the list of Medal of Honor winners.
John Basilone who won the Medal of Honor at Guadalcanal died on Iwo Jima,
they did, the paratroopers landed the night before the landings took place on June 6th 1944
Answer That wasn't their purpose nor was it something they really could have done. The airborn landings were made miles behind the beaches. Their purpose was to take and hold various strategic points inland of the beaches and prevent reinfrocements from reaching the beaches. Airborn troops were really too lightly armed to attack and destroy such heavily fortifcations as existed on the beaches. Also if you had tried to drop them right behind the beaches like that, half of them would have wound up in the sea. Really, the only way to take heavy fortifications like that is with an assault by well supported heavy infantry.Michael Montagne
AnswerThe allies did expect the naval artillery and air bombardment to destroy the fortifications and they were generally right. At Utah beach most of the few bunkers were knocked out, before the troops landed.
AnswerThe Paratroopers goal was to drop behind enemy lines take out chaotic reinforcement troops, clear the artillery fixed on the beaches, and take control of small towns in Normandy to make it harder for the Germans to counter attack.
Besides I say Rommel did his part in fortifying Normandy. The only reason why it was a success was because the Allies fed the Germans info saying that they were going to invade Belgium.
AnswerCertain coastal defenses were considered to be of such importance that they must be removed to protect the beach landings.One worthy of note was the battery at Merville.Lt.Col Otway was given this job with his 9th Batt.of the 6th Airborne Div.He had a model of the target built with all its approach roads etc and practiced the attack,this all took place in a 2 month period before D-Day.secrecy was paramount and a number of pretty girls were introduced to the area with orders to extract all the info. they could from the parachute troops.In this they failed utterly,tho' every officer and man knew the whole plan,but not the location or date.Due to being widely scattered,as were all the airborne that night, his batt. of 635 which was planned as necessary, was reduced to 150,no mine detectors, 6 medics,no Bangalore's no 6 pounder,no engineers,one machine gun,no jeeps or glider stores,no mortars some signals.The C.O decided to attack. After destroying the battery,he had 80 men on their feet,30 casualties,20 of them stretcher cases.this is typical of paratroop warfare on D-Day.
D-Day (literally means Day-Day) had an enormous effect on the second world war. In essence it was the beginning of the end. D-Day is the day when the allies launched a counter attack against the Germans and secured a foot hold on the beaches of Normandy. From there the counter attacked the German offensive and liberated Europe.AnswerGermany was already doomed to defeat long before D-day, and after D-day still kept her best troops in the East to fight the greater threat of the Soviets, but it did hasten the inevitable.
The biggest effect was that it stopped more of Europe from falling into Communist hands. When Stalin was congratulated on reaching Berlin he replied "Czar Alexander got to Paris."AnswerOn June 6, 1944, a date known ever since as D-Day, a mighty armada crossed a narrow strip of sea from England to Normandy, France, and cracked the Nazi grip on western Europe. Germany had to be taken down in some way. They were doomed. AnswerD-Day had to succeed for three very important reasons:
1. Germany and Russia were carrying on secret peace negotiations through Switzerland from 1943-44. With the failure of D-Day Normandy,1944 both Germany and Russia knew the Western allies would not be able to think about another invasion of western Europe for at least another two years. Hitler would be able to transfer the bulk of his forces in the west to the east and with the added troops he was sure that Russia would agree to peace negotiations. 2. Germanys jet fighter technology was ahead of the allies and jet fighter production had started already began. With D-Day failure, that German would have time to produce jet fighters in large quantities and that would have put an end to the Allied Bombing campaign by the end of 1945. 3. German Scientist were pretty advanced with their Nuclear and rocket Programs and would have been the first nation capable of launching a nuke by rocket or dropping a nuke. Scary.
D-Day robbed the Germans of valuable time and any chance of a victory through negotiations.AnswerGreatly. this allowed the allies to gain a foot hold on part of Europe's coast which allowed them to send in more and more troops each day. ANSWERthe D-Day landings had an incredible effect on the course of WW2. they acted as a catalyst to speed up the war but also caused many long and short term effects such as the Berlin wall, the cold war and the united nations
This is the very question that split Christianity into two main beliefs--Calvinism and Arminianism. John Calvin taught that you are once saved, always saved, no matter what you do. Arminian taught that you can lose your salvation. Amongst the denominations today, Calvinists and Arminianists are scattered everywhere.
If I am saved no matter what I do, then Jesus died in vain. The Bible said, "It is for freedom that you have been set free." Jesus didn't set me free from my sin only for me to walk in it again. You were set free from your sin so you can walk in freedom.
Hebrews 6:4-6 says, "For it is impossible to restore to repentance those who were once enlightened--those who have experienced the good things of heaven and shared in the Holy Spirit, who have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the power of the age to come--and who then turn away from God. It is impossible to bring such people to repentance again because they are nailing the Son of God to the cross again by rejecting him, holding him up to public shame."
If it takes faith to get saved in the first place, then it takes faith to keep your salvation. And our salvation hasn't been manifested yet. It will be manifested in heaven. So it takes faith to keep it.
There is a point at which you can lose your salvation. The Bible isn't specific on it. So just live as close to perfect as you can so you don't cross from salvation to not being saved.
Nowhere does the word of God state that once we are saved we are forevermore saved.
This idea is pulled from verses like this.
John 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.
29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and noman is able to pluckthem out of my Father's hand.
Many Christians will use this to say once you are saved you can never lose your salvation. But pay attention to what it says, and does NOT say...
It DOES say "No man" can force you to lose your salvation, this is born out by thousands upon thousands that have died holding on to their confession and belief that Jesus was who he said he was and their faith in him for salvation.
It does NOT, say that men can CHOOSE to leave God's grace of their own accord and retain their salvation. These are the ones that backslide and refuse to come back into fellowship with God. Judas is a perfect example, he walked with Yeshua daily, he heard his teachings, saw the miracles, even laid hands on the sick and saw them healed and cast devils out himself. He betrayed Yeshua, his relationship could have been restored just as Peter's was after he denied Yeshua three times. Peter repented and returned, Judas could have and did not.
We are to work out our salvation with fear and trembling...
Philippians 2:12 Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.
We are to lay weights aside and those things that hold us back, our goal is at the end of the race. It is something we do each and every day. Our reward is at the finish line, NOT at the time we accept Yeshua as Lord and Savior...
Hebrews 12:1 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us,
2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.
3 For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.
4 Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin.
Salvation takes time, patience, endurance. It is not accomplished at the stoke of a pen so to say...
We are adopted into the family of God, and grafted in to the fig tree in a stroke. But the rest is up to us. We are clothed with armor, and given an awesome weapon in the word of God to allow us to work this out and follow through in victory. But it is a decision we make to follow through day to day.
After almost 2 years of planning Allied troops composed mostly of British, American and Canadian soldiers mounted the worlds largest ever combined operation. This involved over 175,000 soldiers landing on the coast of Normandy by ship, parachute and glider. These men were armed with tanks and artillery and made a significant beach head on the first day. Landings kept happening after this first day and by the end of June the Allied forces had almost a million men ashore in France pushing the ill-prepared German armies back.
Now and then, construction work unearths bones and skeletons from soldiers. This happens fairly often," said Fritz Kirchmeier, a spokesman for the German organization that tends the 80,000 graves for German soldiers in Normandy. Casualty estimates for Allied forces vary, but range from 2,500 to more than 5,000 dead on D-Day. Adding to the confusion is that D-Day books and histories often count wounded, missing and troops taken prisoner. On its Web site, the D-Day Museum in Portsmouth, England, says an estimated 2,500 Allied troops died. The U.S. Army Center of Military Historyin Washington, D.C., numbers 6,036 American casualties, including wounded and missing. The Heritage Foundation in Washington estimates 4,900 dead. "It's very difficult to get accurate figures. People get buried. Bodies disintegrate. Evidence of the deaths disappeared. People drowned," said John Keegan, author of "Six Armies in Normandy: From D-Day to the Liberation of Paris." He estimates 2,500 Americans and 3,000 other Allied troops died on D-Day. More than 19,000 civilians in Normandy also died in Allied bombing before and after D-Day to soften up German defenses. And Allied air forces lost nearly 12,000 men in April and May 1944 in operations ahead of the invasion, the D-Day Museum says. Even as the ranks of veterans who survived the assault and the push into Germany thin with time, work on tallying the dead continues. Carol Tuckwiller, director of research at the National D-Day Memorial Foundation in Bedford, Va., has spent four years combing through government, military and cemetery records for names of Allied dead on D-Day. She hopes to have a figure by next year. "We feel like we're probably going to end up with a total of about 4,500 fatalities for both the Americans and Allied countries. Right now, we have about 4,200 names confirmed," she said. "Of course we realize we may never be 100 percent complete."
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