Well, apart from the obvious one that 220V is double 110V, in practical terms
it means that you can move 4 times as much power through a 220V cable, as
you can through a 110V cable, provided that the cables are the same
Basically, it is an economic issue. The current (Amps) determines the diameter
of the copper cable. The more current required, the thicker (and heavier) the
cable must be.
Because P = V x A (Power = Volts x Amps), a country using 220V service
requires copper cable of only 1/2 the diameter to deliver the same amount of
power to all its consumers, as compared to a country which has 110V service.
On a 220V line, you are drawing only 1/2 the Current (amps) to achieve the
same power delivery, as compared to a line running 110V.
The USA, as a rich country, could afford to install an electrical infrastructure
of thick and heavy copper cables, with a lower and safer 110V voltage,
whereas the rest of the world took the cheaper option of thinner and lighter
cables at 220V to achieve the same power (Watts) delivery.
That's why an electric clothes dryer and other powerful devices like central
heating or big window air conditioners have to have a 220 volt supply; for the
same cable thickness, you can draw twice the power (watts) as compared to
a 110V line.
The fact that it's supposed to. Voltage is stated as the difference between the two wires carrying electricity to the load. When they bring power to the house from the utility, you get two wires carrying 110v but they're 180 degrees out of phase. Imagine one carries positive 110v and the other carries negative 110v. If you hook one of these wires plus a neutral (zero volts) to the load, you get 110v--110v over 0v. If you hook both of them to the load, you get positive 110v over negative 110v, or 220v. So...red to white is 110v, black to white is 110v, red to black is 220v.
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