Elements and Compounds
Uranium

What is the history of uranium yellowcake?

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2015-03-06 21:32:57
2015-03-06 21:32:57

Yellow cake is ammonium diuranate - (NH4)2U2O7.
Yellow cake is an intermediate in the preparation of uranium metal, uranium tetrafluoride and uranium dioxide. It was known from the XIXth century but become important during WWII and Manhattan Project.

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The yellowcake is the ammonim diuranate with the formula (NH4)2U2O7 !


Actually the Yellowcake formula involved in Nuclear energy is U3O8


Yellowcake (a Uranium bearing rock).


Either yellow uranium oxide (yellowcake) or metallic uranium in most reactors. In moderated thermal neutron reactors the uranium is usually enriched to 3% to 5% uranium-235 isotope, in unmoderated fast neutron reactors the uranium is enriched to 20% to 95% uranium-235 isotope. This uranium comes from mines (similar to coal or iron ore mines). What is mined is usually black uranium oxide ore. This ore is processed to make unenriched yellowcake (0.7% uranium-235) and shipped to the enrichment plant. Most enrichment plants process the yellowcake to make uranium hexafloride then run that through their system, producing both enriched uranium (product) and depleted uranium (waste). The enriched uranium hexafloride is then processed back to yellowcake and shipped to a finishing plant that uses it to make the required fuel assemblies.


Conventional transport, usually in the form of yellowcake, in sealed drums.


in reactors: yellowcake, a uranium oxide; after that probably metallic uraniumin stars: ordinary hydrogen; after that helium


Determination of uranium in yellowcake (ammonium diuranate) - some methods: - gravimetry by calcination to U3O8 (only for pure ADU) - volumetry with potassium dichromate - potentiometric titration with potassium dichromate - X-ray spectrometry - gravimetry as oxinate


Any rock or mineral containing economically recoverable quantities of Uranium compounds is a Uranium ore. These compounds are most commonly various oxides, silicates, titanates, phosphates, vanadates, arsenates, etc. of Uranium.To get pure Uranium metal from the ore various processes can be used, but a basic outline of the steps goes something like:Crush the ore to particles roughly the size of dust.Mix with chemicals to dissolve the crushed ore and change the oxidation state of the Uranium separating it chemically from the ore molecules.Mix with chemicals that cause the separated Uranium atoms to react with them, forming a precipitate (a Uranium oxide called yellowcake).Filter the solution, the Uranium precipitate will stay in the filter while the rest passes through as waste. Wash in the filter to make sure none of the waste remains to contaminate the Uranium precipitate.Dry the yellowcake powder.Mix yellowcake with magnesium metal granules and heat red hot in a crucible. The mixture will ignite leaving Uranium metal in the bottom of the crucible and magnesium oxide slag on top.Uranium is usually enriched first for reactors and bombs instead of just being converted to metal, also most power reactors use enriched yellowcake not the pure metal. To enrich Uranium the basic outline goes something like this:Mix yellowcake with nitric acid, then ammonia, then hydrogen gas, then hydrofluoric acid, then fluorine gas to produce Uranium hexafluoride.The Uranium hexafluoride it heated to become a gas in an enrichment plant (e.g. gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge). The products are enriched Uranium hexafluoride (e.g. more Uranium-235) and depleted Uranium hexafluoride (e.g. less Uranium-235) from opposite ends of the plant.The Uranium hexafluoride (of either or both types is converted back to yellowcake.


Uranium is extracted as U3O8, an oxide known as yellowcake.Uranium may also be present in water as the UO22+ uranyl cation.Most uranium is U-238, which has a half-life of 4.5 billion years.---------Uranium has about 200 minerals. See for some examples: http://www.webmineral.com/chem/Chem-U.shtmlThe yellowcake is the ammonium diuranate (NH4)2 U2O7 (yellow colour); U3O8 (triuraniumoctaoxyde) is black.Uranium is a chemical element, natural, radioactive, solid, metal.


Uranium ore (usually black oxide) is mined.Uranium ore is shipped to Mill.Mill separates Uranium from ore and converts black oxide to yellow oxide (yellowcake).Yellowcake is shipped to Enrichment plant.Preprocessing plant converts yellowcake to Uranium Hexafluoride (the only Uranium compound that is a gas near room temperature, but also corrosive to almost every metal except nickel and explosive in contact with either water or oil!!!)Enrichment plant enriches the Uranium in the Uranium Hexafluoride gas from 0.72% Uranium-235 (natural level) to 3% Uranium-235 (power reactor fuel level)Postprocessing plant converts enriched Uranium Hexafluoride to enriched yellowcake.Yellowcake is shipped to fuel pellet Canning plant.Canning plant cans yellowcake in Zirconium alloy fuel pellet cans.Fuel pellets are shipped to fuel rod Assembly plant.Assembly plant inserts fuel pellets into steel fuel rod tubes.Fuel rods are shipped to Reactor.Fuel rods are inserted in Reactor as needed.This is the basic outline from mine to a water moderated & cooled reactor. There are many additional minor steps along the way. For other reactor designs (e.g. metal cooled fast breeder reactor, gas cooled high temperature graphite moderated pebble bed reactor, liquid metal fueled reactor) several of the basic steps themselves will have to change.


There is an element called Yttrium, atomic number 39. Refined uranium ore is called yellowcake.


June H. Taylor has written: 'Yellowcake' -- subject(s): Cartels, Uranium industry


Most water moderated reactors use yellowcake powder: a uranium oxide enriched to 3% uranium-235. A few reactors use metallic uranium, sometimes enriched past 20%. Some experimental reactors use plutonium or mixed uranium & plutonium.


It could if you snorted yellowcake or uranium machining dust. Another way it might is if you had been in an area where depleted uranium antitank shells had been fired. But lung cancer is probably more likely for any of these cases than nasal cancer.


There is an element called Yttrium, atomic number 39. Refined uranium ore is called yellowcake.


Chemistry of conventional explosives used.Uranium chemistry for making yellowcake, hex, etc.Plutonium chemistry for separating it from chopped up fuel pellets.Electroplating chemistry for coating Uranium and Plutonium with Nickel.etc.


The number you are asking for (the critical size) varies dramatically with reactor design and fuel enrichment level, a large power reactor may need thousands of tons of yellowcake while a small research or medical reactor could operate on as little as about 1Kg Highly Enriched Uranium.Some examples of actual reactor fuel loads:X-10, 54.1 tons slightly enriched Uranium metalNRX, 10.5 tons natural UraniumSUPO, 870 grams 88.7% enriched Uranyl Nitrate in water solutionCalder Hall, 130 tons natural UraniumShippingport, 14.16 tons natural Uranium yellowcake & 75Kg Highly Enriched Uranium metalAHPR, 90Kg highly enriched Uranyl Sulfate & Uranyl Nitrate in water solution


Uranyl nitrate solution refining by ion-exchangers and solvent extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate in kerosene, obtaining a pure UNH solution, precipitate with ammonia, obtaining of the yellowcake, drying and calcining the yellowcake to oxide U3O8; to obtain the pure metal (an option): reducing of U3O8 to UO2, preparation of UCl4, reducing of the tetrachloride with potassium, etc.


Uranium is found at low concentrations in ore, which has to be treated by milling and then chemical means to obtain Uranium oxide at about 75 percent, called Yellowcake. This would normally be done close to the mining site, and the yellowcake is then packed into sealed metal drums. These can be transported by whatever means are appropriate to the country of destination, by road, rail, or sea. Generally the Uranium will need to be enriched, that is have the proportion of U235 increased to 3-4 percent for nuclear power use, or much more for weapons use. This is done nowadays using gas centrifuges, the uranium oxide yellowcake being first converted to gaseous uranium hexafluoride. after this it is turned back into the oxide form, and eventually into small cylinders of the right size to make up the fuel rods required. This process of enrichment requires a high level of technology and is not widespread, only a few countries have the knowledge to do it at present. These UO2 cylinders are then made into fuel rods and hence fuel assemblies. These can then be transported with suitable packing to the power station site where they are to be used. There is no particular difficulty with the transport, though precautions will certainly be taken with regard to security.


Svetlana - 2010 Yellowcake 1-1 was released on: USA: 27 May 2010


The nuclear fuel used in nuclear reactors include: 1. natural uranium (metal or oxide); 2. Uranium dioxide; 3. MOX fuel (Uranium Oxide + Plutonium Oxide); 4. Plutonium Oxide; and in future5. Thorium fuel


Rumoured to be Yellowcake which is a hazardous substance......


uranium oxide (yellowcake) powder clad in zirconium metal cansuranium metal slug clad in zirconium metal cansuranium metal rods clad with stainless steel metalMOX (mixed uranium and plutonium oxide) powder clad in zirconium metal cansplutonium oxide powder clad in zirconium metal cansplutonium metal slug clad in zirconium metal cansuranyl sulfate or uranyl nitrate solution in water (fuel/moderator/coolant mixed) - primary coolant loop circulates fuel and coolant, needs 3 coolant loops, but changing fuel is almost trivial compared to other reactorsuranium oxide (yellowcake) ceramic pellet clad in ceramic clad in pyrolytic graphite - fuel/moderator for pebble bed gas cooled inherently thermally safe reactoretc.etc.


Heinrich Klaproth discovered uranium in 1789. It was classified as a radioactive (metal) element and as the 92 element on the periodic table. Its chemical symbol is U. :) happy to help


Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Klaproth as the mineral pitchblende, obtained from Johanngeorgenstadt ad Joachimov. In 1841 Peligot was the first to isolate the pure uranium.



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