What types of technologies are used to connect remote computers to networks?
To acutally connect to a network, and be a part of that network
get an IP address etc you could use Virtual private network (VPN).
To just get access to that network:
Remote desktop connection (RDP)
Remote web workplace (if your on an SBS server)
Sharepoint (though this is just more or less an internal
There are a few more ways... but those listed are the only ones
I'm familiar with.