What was the military in Athens?

The citizens who had a panoply of arms (shield, armour, helmet, spear and sword) made up the core of the army - they were called hoplites from hoopla = panoply of arms. A few rich enough to afford the upkeep of a horse were the cavalry. Those males who didn't were drafted as light infantry and archers. o the army was made up of male citizens who trained regularly and were called out when required.

Then the archers were provided by Scythian slaves who also doubled as police. And the cavalry was augmented by hiring in Thracians.

The navy was manned by rowers from the un-propertied class augmented by those hired from other cities. The sailors and marines came from the un-propertied class.

Resident aliens were also required to turn out in direct defence of the city, formed their own regiment and were expected to fight well as payment for their residential privilege.