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What were the causes of the English Civil War?

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2016-06-14 06:39:37
2016-06-14 06:39:37

The civil war ( between Charles 1 and the parliament) was caused by a lot of things.

The main reasons were;

RELIGION:

Charles married Henrietta Maria of France who was catholic, but the country was protestant so many people believed he was going to change the country catholic which they didn'twant.

MONEY:

Charles also spent all the tax money on paintings and clothes for his family instead of the country but he did like to spend some money on weapons in case of a war.

POWER:

He attempted to arrest 5mps and pretty soon the parliament got annoyed and that's how the civil war was created. The parliament won and Charles got beheaded for treason.

It was mostly about religion but also the principles by which the countries would be governed. The English Civil War can really be traced back to the confrontations in Scotland over religion.

Charles was King of both countries (and Ireland) and he was a big believer in High Anglicanism and the Divine Right of Kings.

He had ruled for 11 years (known as the 'eleven years' tyranny' or 'Charles' personal rule') without calling a Parliament since he had found ways of raising money elsewhere - ship tax, forced loans and so on. These methods made him deeply unpopular in some quarters (mostly the people he was squeezing for money) but probably wouldn't have sparked a revolt. The Divine right of Kings was all about Charles being appointed by God and so no-one could gainsay his policies. And since he avoided calling a Parliament there was no forum to argue. The problems begin when he decided to try and bring the Scottish Church (The Kirk) more into line with the English Church (The Anglican Church), this would involve increasing the numbers and powers of Bishops and some alterations to the service practices and a new hymn book. A lot of Scots, including many natural supporters of the King, were horrified at what they saw as an attack on their faith and the first step on the road to Catholic conversion. They aren't alone Puritans and Anglicans in England both fear Catholic revival as well, and each other..., This isn't being helped by the stories from Ireland of Catholic risings and so on. However the problems come when the Scots enmass rejected the demands of the King - most of the nation signing the "National Covenant" calling on the King to protect their faith and began to threaten Bishops and smash up the furnishings of churches claiming them to be Idols. Charles wasn't going to let them ignore him - Divine Rights and all that - so he tried to raise an army. Unfortunately the Scots having time, Money and a serious case of religious fervour on their side managed to get a large army together themselves. Charles needed Money to raise his forces - the "trained bands" local militias being seriously under trained and under-equipped (outside London) - and to get money he needed to go to Parliament. Once in place Parliament wasn't going to vote over money without first asking the King to do various things like stop with all the ship money and forced loans and star chambers and stuff. So Charles made a few shaky promises gets the loot and dismisses the Parly. Heads North. The Scots (Now calling themselves Coveneters) then chuck a spanner in the works by clobbering the Royal army and occupying Newcastle and all it's coal fields. Charles agrees to pay bribes for the Scots to stay there and hurries back south. The big moment arrives and he has to call another Parliament in order to pay for the bribes to the Scots - and raise a new army. This Parliament has no intention being dismissed so easily and has a much more Puritan leaning and starts to pass bills and make "requests" like before but more so. Eventually Charles is backed into a corner and, divine rights and all that, he marches to parliament and tries to arrest his biggest critics for treason. Parliament summons the London Trained bands to protect the house and by the time Charles arrives the MP's he wants are gone and the whole city is slowly turning against him.... Civil War begins - Fighting in Ireland and Scotland has being going on for a couple of years already however!

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