When geneticists speak of mutation they are referring to?
In genetics, mutation refers to a change in the sequence of genes. This can mean a change in the genes in an organism's DNA or in the DNA/RNA of a virus.
There are many different types of mutations, which will have differing effects depending on how many bases/sections have been changed, where the sections are located and how different the resultant protein(s) will be.
For example; a change in one base, that does not change the amino acid that will be coded for is called a silent mutation. This will have no affect on the resulting protein or the organism.
A geneticist is a scientist who studies genetics, the science of heredity and variation of organisms. Some geneticists perform experiments and analyze data to interpret the inheritance of traits. A geneticist is also a Consultant or Medical Doctor who has been trained in genetics as specialization. They evaluate, diagnose and manage patients with hereditary conditions or congenital malformations, genetic risk calculation, mutation analysis and referral to other medical specialties is also involved.
Geneticists are specialists in genetics and genetics related problems. Genetics refers to the study of hereditary i.e. the passage of information from one generation to another. Experiments are carried out in labs so as to pindown the role of specific gene in a given condition. They also do studies relating to genetic disorders caused by mutation and various other regions and methods of overcoming that using gene therapy and other modes of better management.
referring means you are talking about something. maybe something that happened previously, or a certain object you could say "i was referring to that plant NOT your hair" or "I was referring to the time when we went to Coronado" "i was referring to when we go to Ireland next month" "I will be referring back to this discussion when i speak to my boss." In interviewing though.. maybe you meant reference? a reference is…
Geneticists use a technique called Karyotyping. Scientists take a picture of chromosomes and then arrange them in pairs to end up with 22 chromosomes and another pair that determines sex; chromosome (X,X ) for female or (X,Y) for males. Then you can determine mutation when some chromosomes are missing, ex: missing chromosome 13 will result in Patau Syndrome, or missing chromosome 18 results in Edward's Syndrome
A somatic mutation will only affect the organism which already contains that mutation and will not pass that mutation to its offspring. A gametic mutation may not affect the organism which contains the mutation, but that mutation may or will be passed to its offspring, where the mutation might be, or can be expressed.
This concept was called saltationism. It posited that organisms could be speciated by " hopeful monster " mutations in one large jump and this concept vied for prominence among biologists, mostly geneticists, with gradualist concepts of how evolution happened and all this in the early 20th century. This concept was shown to have no merit and has been refuted since then.
Ich spreche kein Deutsch. (Lit. I speak no German). Or: Ich kann kein Deutsch (sprechen). I can`t (speak) German. You don`t have to say "speak", as it is commonly understood, what you are referring to. Hence, to ask "do you speak English, one can simply say "can you English?" or "kannst du Englisch?"
The mutation theory is basically stating that mutation is one of the major factors that cause evolution. The mutation has to be a beneficial mutation, meaning that it has to help the survival of the organism that got the mutation. The mutation causes knew genes and diversity which can spread quickly throughout a population and eventually change the frequency of alleles (causes mutation) Remember the mutation has to be beneficial to the survival of the…