Which group came to dominate Italian city-states in the 1300s and 1400s?
Venice and Milan .
How did the combination of plague upheaval in the Church and war affect Europe in the 1300s and 1400s?
How was trade between Europe and Africa before the 1400s different from trade between those continents between the 1400s and the 1700s?
firearms (guns) have been around for as long as 400 something years. the uses they have are hunting, law inforcement, warfare, and just sharpenoing up your shooting skills. Firearms have existed for considerably more than 400 years. The first handguns were used in, well, the 1300s or the 1400s, depending on which historical accounts you read.
Gun shooting became an official sport in 1871 or 1872 when the NRA was formed, however, I'm sure, informally, people started shooting against other people for competition the day after the gun was invented, which was in either the 1300s or 1400s, depending on who you ask. According to some historians, bow and arrow shooting dates back to 9000 B.C.
Stone cannonballs have been used for centuries - very common after gun powder made its way to Europe in the 1300s. They became more common during the 1400s through the 1700s. During the US Civil War, cast iron was sometimes used for cannonballs but "gunstone" was cheaper and very effective, depending on the target and type of cannon.
French was not "discovered" since no language (aside from made-up ones like Klingon and Esperanto) comes into existence instantly. What we call French today has its roots in the dialects of Latin spoken in North Central France near what is today Paris in the 1300s and 1400s. Intermediate dialects of Latin that slowly become French existed for nearly 1000 years prior to this.
Yes, French toast is a traditional French food, but the simplicity of the recipe helped it spread and become popular elsewhere. The first written mention of French toast, under its French name, "pain perdu" ("lost bread") is from a French recipe book of the 1300s. In the 1400s a mention of it is found in an English recipe book, but still under the French name.
It depends what you term Spanish. Languages evolve by slow changes that go from dialect to dialect. Modern Castilian (the version of Spanish that we are familiar with) only exists in the exact form that we are familiar with today for 200 years or so. Prior to that, the language was more or less the same, but some words were spelled differently (yerba vs. hierba) and some of the grammar was different. This goes back…
No. Quite the reverse. In ancient times, the Celts who inhabited England almost certainly got there from France. And in 1066 it was the Normans - originally Vikings, but implanted in France for over a century - who invaded England and took the land away from the natives - which sounds like colonization to me. The English only invaded France in the 1300s, leading to the Hundred Years War and the eventual ejection of English…
Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire held the Muslims at bay in the southeast (Balkans) until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 1300s and 1400s. In Western Europe, the Frankish Victory by Charles Martel in 732 C.E. at the Battle of Tours (called by the French as the Battle of Poitiers) against the Amazigh and Arab Islamic Forces from Spain, prevented Islam from reaching western and central Europe from the southwest (Iberia).