Which process is responsible for the energy emitted from the sun and all other stars?
Inertial confinement nuclear fusion.
In both plant and animal cells, mitochonria are responsible for energy transfer. They are the sites of the a metabolic process in which ATP is generated from extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. In plant cells only, chloroplasts are responsible for energy transfer; they are the sites of photosynthesis.
What happens during fluorescence to the energy which gets absorbed but not emitted as fluorescence by the atom?
If energy is absorbed but not emitted as fluorescence it may: increase the energy of the molecules - manifest as an increase in temperature use the energy to power a chemical reaction - manifest as a change in composition release the energy at a wavelength other than that being observed for fluorescence.
High-energy photons are emitted by the hot atoms, then re-absorbed by other atoms, after moving only a fairly short distance. Then they are re-emitted again, and the process repeats. The whole process reminds of a random walk by a drunk person - they won't all move directly outward, but in random directions.
As it is a form of energy, it cannot be said to originate in any normal sense - energy is neither destroyed nor created. The other problem with your question is that because the electromagnetic spectrum covers all forms of radiated wave energy, there is no simple answer. As a very simple starting point, all forms of EMR can be generated as a result of a change in energy of matter. For instance, visible light…
Radiation is any process that transfers energy from one object to another by emission of "rays" of some type. There are many different kinds of "rays" that can do this, probably the most familiar is heat rays or IR that are emitted by hot objects into the cooler ambient environment around them heating it. A few other types of "rays": radio and microwave, photons emitted by the transmitting antenna and absorbed by the receiving antenna…
For the greenhouse effect: Solar energy enters the car through the window and is absorbed by the seats and dashboard of the car. The energy is then re-emitted as thermal energy (infrared waves) but is trapped by the glass of the window. The process is very similar to how water vapor and other "greenhouse gases" keep our planet warm enough for abundant life.
In your body what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
Solar energy is energy, it can't waste energy. The process of converting incoming solar energy into other forms of energy that are more useful to us (which is often, confusingly, still called "solar energy") does in fact waste some of the input energy, since no real conversion process is 100% efficient.
this process is the process of gaining thermal energy. As any matter changes state from solid to any other form it will require energy. As energy is exerted on the solid perssure or electric or thermal or other type, the solid will obsorb the energy and change state. The solid thereby will in turn and at a ratio, increase the thermal energy it consumes.