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Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy covers technology of reactors, different types of reactors, their history and development, exploitation in different countries, operating experiences, problems of nuclear waste.

6,179 Questions

Is there any possibility of designing a rocket using atomic energy?

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Yes, it is possible to design a rocket that harnesses atomic energy for propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion systems, for example, use nuclear reactions to heat a propellant and generate thrust. These systems have been studied for potential use in future space missions due to their high efficiency and energy density.

How can nuclear energy effect the ecosystem?

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Nuclear energy can potentially have negative impacts on the ecosystem through accidental releases of radioactive materials into the environment, which can harm wildlife, contaminate water sources, and damage ecosystems. However, nuclear energy can also have positive effects by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution compared to fossil fuels, which can benefit ecosystems by mitigating the impacts of climate change.

How many neutrons are produced during a typical uranium fission reaction and what is the role of these neutrons in a nuclear chain reaction?

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On average, about 2-3 neutrons are produced during a uranium fission reaction. These neutrons are crucial as they can go on to strike other uranium nuclei, causing them to undergo fission as well. This process creates a chain reaction that releases more energy and additional neutrons, leading to a sustained nuclear reaction.

What is the mass lost during solar thermonuclear fusion is converted to?

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The simple answer is that the mass lost during fusion is converted1 to energy, represented by heat and other types of radiation.

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1The more complex, and more correct, answer is that mass is neither created nor destroyed, and neither is energy created nor destroyed. Mass is energy and energy is mass. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula e = mc2 does not say that one can be converted to the other; it says that the two are equivalent by a factor of the speed of light squared; it just depends on your frame of reference.

Speaking of the "frame of reference", this formula is actually a simplified version of the real formula, which includes the relative velocity between event and observer. You see, there is also a Lorentz transformation term 1/(1-(v2/c2)1/2). This term is equal to 1 at v=0, and infinity at v=c, making the energy required to accelerate any mass to the speed of light an infinite factor. That is why only photons, with a rest mass of zero, can travel at the speed of light.

Which atomic reactor is used for studies of uranium heavy water lattice in India?

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The CIRUS reactor in India is commonly used for studies involving uranium heavy water lattices. This reactor was used for research purposes before being permanently shut down in 2010.

Which is generally not associated with nuclear reactions?

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Weather patterns are generally not associated with nuclear reactions. Nuclear reactions involve processes that occur at the atomic nucleus level, often related to the release of energy through fission or fusion, whereas weather patterns are the result of complex interactions in Earth's atmosphere and are driven by factors such as temperature, pressure, and humidity.

What products do you gain by nuclear fission?

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The products of nuclear fission are typically two or more smaller nuclei, along with the release of energy in the form of gamma radiation and kinetic energy of the fission fragments. Fission of a heavy nucleus can also produce neutrons, which can go on to induce further fission reactions in a chain reaction.

What is the absolute location of the fukushima nuclear power plant?

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The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is located in the town of Okuma, in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Its absolute location is approximately 37.4214° N latitude and 141.0323° E longitude.

Why does a nuclear fission reaction generally not result in an uncontrolled chain reaction?

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Nuclear fission reactions are controlled in reactors by using materials that absorb excess neutrons, like control rods. This prevents a chain reaction from running out of control. Additionally, reactors are carefully designed and operated to maintain the conditions necessary to sustain controlled fission reactions without escalating into an uncontrolled chain reaction.

Why is uranium useful?

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Uranium is useful because it is a key fuel for nuclear power plants, providing a source of abundant and relatively clean energy. It is also used in nuclear weapons and certain medical and industrial applications, such as radiation therapy and high-density counterweights. Additionally, uranium can be used as a catalyst in chemical reactions and as a coloring agent in glass and ceramics.

Why have scientists been unable to control nuclear fusion reactions?

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Scientists have been unable to control nuclear fusion reactions for sustained energy production mainly due to technical challenges in containing and sustaining the extremely high temperatures and pressures required for fusion reactions. Achieving conditions where the fusion reaction produces more energy than it consumes is still a significant hurdle in creating a viable fusion power plant. Additionally, developing materials that can withstand the harsh conditions inside a fusion reactor remains a major obstacle.

What type of nuclear blast occurs underground?

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An underground nuclear blast is referred to as an underground nuclear test. It involves detonating a nuclear weapon below the surface of the Earth, effectively containing the explosion underground. This type of blast generates seismic waves that can be detected and analyzed for various purposes, including testing nuclear weapons technology.

What fuel is used in fast breeder reactor?

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Fast breeder reactors typically use a combination of plutonium-239 as fuel and uranium-238 as a fertile material. The plutonium-239 undergoes fission when bombarded by high-energy neutrons, producing heat that is used to generate electricity. The uranium-238 absorbs these neutrons and eventually transmutes into plutonium-239, contributing to the "breeding" of additional fuel.

Where is the majority of the nuclear energy that lands on earth produced and what are three ways this energy is used once it reaches Earth's surface?

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The majority of nuclear energy on Earth is produced in the core of the sun through nuclear fusion reactions. Once this energy reaches Earth's surface, it is used for electricity generation in nuclear power plants, medical applications such as cancer treatments using radiation therapy, and research purposes like nuclear physics experiments.

Is plutonium produced by the fission of uranium?

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Plutonium is a completely different chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Pu and the atomic number 94 (meaning there are 94 protons in its nucleus), and all of its isotopes are radioactive. A link is provided to the Wikipedia article on Plutonium.

What can be used to absorb neutrons to control the chain reaction during nuclear fission?

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Materials such as boron, cadmium, and hafnium can be used as neutron absorbers to regulate the nuclear fission chain reaction. These materials effectively absorb neutrons, preventing them from initiating additional fission reactions and helping to control the overall process.

How does nuclear energy extracted from the ground?

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Nuclear energy is not extracted from the ground like fossil fuels. It is generated through a process called nuclear fission in nuclear reactors. Uranium atoms are split in a controlled chain reaction, releasing energy in the form of heat, which is then used to produce electricity.

Why is coolant used in nuclear power station?

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Coolant is used in nuclear power stations to transfer heat away from the reactor core to a steam generator, where the heat can then be used to produce electricity. The coolant absorbs the heat generated from nuclear fission reactions and helps regulate the temperature of the reactor core to prevent overheating and maintain safe operating conditions.

What type of nuclear energy is more important for life on earth?

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The nuclear energy that is most important for life on Earth is the nuclear fusion that powers the sun. This energy is essential for providing heat and light, which support life on our planet. Nuclear fission, used in nuclear power plants, also plays a role in providing electricity for human activities.

How can nuclear radiation effect living organisms?

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Nuclear radiation can damage cells in living organisms, leading to DNA mutations, cell death, and tissue damage. It can cause acute radiation sickness or lead to long-term health effects such as an increased risk of cancer or genetic mutations in future generations. The extent of the impact depends on the dose, duration of exposure, and type of radiation.

What causes the japan nuclear power plant to malfunction?

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The malfunction of the Japan nuclear power plant, such as the Fukushima Daiichi plant in 2011, was primarily caused by a combination of a powerful earthquake and subsequent tsunami. The natural disaster damaged the plant's cooling systems, leading to overheating of the reactors and ultimately resulting in nuclear meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials. Regulatory and operational shortcomings also played a role in the accident.

How is nuclear energy extracted from earth?

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Nuclear energy is extracted from the Earth through the process of nuclear fission. This involves splitting the nucleus of uranium atoms in a controlled environment, releasing a significant amount of energy in the form of heat. This heat is then used to generate steam, which drives turbines to produce electricity.

What made the nuclear power plant get destroyed in Japan?

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The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan was destroyed by a series of events following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. The plant's cooling systems failed, leading to meltdowns of the reactor cores and releases of radioactive materials.

How can nuclear fission be slowed?

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Nuclear fission can be slowed by inserting control rods, such as boron or cadmium, into the reactor core. These control rods absorb neutrons, reducing the number available to initiate fission reactions and thus slowing down the rate of fission in the reactor.

What is the word equation of the nuclear reaction in the suns core?

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Four protons are fused together to four one helium nucleus The differential strong atomic force is released as energy and gamma radiation. Two of the protons are converted into neutrons, releasing positrons and electron neutrinos.