Mainly the Holocaust lead by Adolf Hitler, however these are some more
Pogrom refers to mob violence against Jews of the kind that was common in Tsarist Russia. The Holocaust was very different and was not carried out by mobs. A well known example is that at Kishinev in 1905.
Lenin disagreed with Marx in that the economy of Russia was not capitalized. Marx thought Socialism is only possible from capitalized industrial society. Lenin felt the party could take over from the top down rather than bottom up. The party would then industrialize the country before communism.
Better known as the McCarthy Trials running from the late 40's to the early 50's. The events of often compared to the Salem Witch Trials in that anyone could make an accusation or suggestion of subversion or treason and no real evidence was necessary. The people brought before the 'Commission' and asked to admit there acts or perhaps name others to get a pass. It was a system ruled by fear (think post September 11- when Bush denied and removed the rights of hundreds of thousands of people, with little resistance because resistance equals treason). Anyone deemed to be a communist was blacklisted and became seen as less then human.
Hope this helps, for more info check online, a great summary can be found on wikipedia just type McCartyism.
Tsar Russia was in WW1 together with Allies but after the Revolution it was Soviet union (SU/USSR) which contained Poland before the war, but gave it up afterwards. Learn history please, but not in America, because nobody there knows history correctly. Peace. Sorry for my bad English.
Russia was in control of Crimea, Ukraine, small parts of Romania, Belarus, and Georgia.
No, Stalin was Georgian by birth.
Dmitry Medvedev was born on September 14, 1965.
Leon Bronstein was born in the Southern Ukraine on October 26, 1879, the son of a Jewish farmer. He moved to Odessa at age 9 to live with relatives and attend a prestigious private school. After graduation, he entered Odessa University. Leon was attracted to radical politics. The level of violence and discontent began to rise along the Russian countryside, brought on largely by Russian failure in the Russo-Japanese war and Bloody Sunday. "He was drawn into an underground socialist circle and introduced to Marxism"- Encyclopedia Britannica. Trotsky was soon organizing the Southern Russian Workers Union, which led to his first arrest and exile to Siberia."Though Trotsky was forced into exile, the unripeness of the authoritatian form of government spared his life for fifteen years."- Paul Mattick. While in exile, Leon married Alexandra Sokolovskaya, a Marxist radical who bore him two daughters. Leon escaped two years later and left his family behind. From then on, Leon assumed the last name Trotsky.
He went to England where he met Vladimir Lenin, instigator of the Communist Revolution. Trotsky attended the Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party where he broke from Lenin.
Lenin's faction of the RSDP was the Bolsheviks, or majority; the other half was the Mensheviks or minority. Trotsky harshly criticised Lenin's committee policy as a slippery slope to dictatorship. Lenin's idea of forgoing democracy in order to ensure equality was emblematic of his philosophy that the end justifies the means. Simply put, all that matters is that the goal is achieved, no matter how one arrives at it.
This break would lead to long years of estrangement between the two. In Paris, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova; although they were never married, they lived together until Trotsky's Death. They had two sons - Lyova and Sergey. In 1905, Trotsky traveled to St. Petersburg to play a major role in a revolutionary attempt. Trotsky was a hero to the revolutionists, but the revolution soon collapsed. Trotsky was arrested, but he managed to escape before arriving at Siberia for imprisonment.
The Trotsky family then moved to Vienna where he lived until the first World War erupted in 1914. They then moved to Paris. Trotsky wrote articles and edited a newspaper, condemning the imperialist war. The Germans were striving for world domination by force, which Trotsky was wholly against. He felt that communist domination could only work if workers worldwide voluntarily threw off the shackles of their oppressors. Instead, the Soviet Union later would invade Eastern Europe, aggressively overthrowing governments and instituting puppet regimes.
Trotsky then bounced around from France to Spain to New York; no government would let him stay for long. During this period, Trotsky was equally critical of the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, but during the war he drifted back to Lenin's side.
The initials in English are USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). In the Russian (Cyrillic) alphabet CCCP.
Please note that an apparent "C" is equivalent to an English "S"; the apparent "P" actually is equivalent to English "R") The country's name in Russian was Союз Советский Социалистических Республик, pronounced "Soyuz Sovetskiĭ Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik"
Lenin led the revolution. When he returned from switzerland, he inspired the masses to revolt against the Burgeoise. Also, he inspired soldiers to convert to the cause. Thus, he was a major influence in the revolution. Partly right. In fact Russia had threee revolutions to deal with. 1905 - after a enormous defeat against Japan (the entire navy was lost) the Tsar had to deal with the Bolsjewist and Mensjewist party who took over control over several cities. The revolution was surpressed, and Nikolai II promised to reform the country. This didn't happen though and in February 1917, nikolai II was abducted and a temporary government was formed. Main people in this government were anton Kerenski (a former journalist if I'm not mistaken) and Prince Llov (a liberal) Allthough thy tried to reform the country, they didn't succeed to prevent the bolsjewiki to overthrow this government in november 1917 (done by Lenin, trotski and Stalin). Lenin took control over the government. A bit later, the civil war started which lasted for three years (1917 - 1920) eventually won by Lenin and his frieds (the jew Trotsky was the main architect to victory here). Since then, propaganda stated only one heroic revolution took place in 1917. The truth is, that Lenin just entered the room and said something like. Gentlemen, we take over control. It seems as if WWI had just as much responsibility for the Oct. Revolution as the Bolsheviks did. The autocracy surely would've retained power without entrence into the war. The situation in Russia by 1917 had become very unsatisfactory and Lenins return to the coutry with the help of the Germans was vital. This is not because of Lenins major influence on the revolution but his presence in a moment of possible change to the government, the war played a big part but it was Lenin who utalised the situation to his advantage and he knew when the time had come for a possible Bolshevik take over.
The Bolshevicks actually took power from the provisional government on October 25th 1917 (Note: this is by the Christian calendar, back then the Russians used a different kind of calendar, and that is why it is celebrated in November.) but the actual revolution started on Bloody Sunday in 1905 when the people of Russia went to the Czars winter palace and asked that he help his people out of poverty, but the Czar ordered for his men to fire on the protesters.
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nicolaievna b. 1901-1918 lived chiefly in relative isolation (by Russian Imperial standards) with her family, Tsar Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna along with her three elder sisters and younger brother the Tsarevitch Alexei in the Alexander Palace at Tsarkoe Selo, fifteen miles south of the Imperial Capital, St. Petersburg or after 1914, Petrograd.
The Russian Imperial progress however followed a cyclical migration around the empire. In March the Imperial family would depart the ice and sub-zero temperatures of the capital and journey to the summer palace in the Crimea high above the Black Sea at Yalta. This was called Livadia and was the favourite residence of both the Tsar and Empress as well as the children. Here they could live more informally than anywhere else and frequently went into Yalta unrecognized by the citizenry to shop or simply enjoy a few hours as a "commoner". In June the Imperial family cruised the Baltic often journeying to Denmark to visit the Tsar's maternal grandparents King Christian IX and Queen Louise. Escaping the heat and mosquitos which invariably would plague the marshes of St. Petersburg in the summer the Imperial progress took the family to Tsar Peter the Greats 'Versailles of the East' the architect Rastrelli's masterpiece; Peterhof on the shores of the Baltic Sea. September the family journeyed by rail deep into the Polish wilderness to the Imperial hunting lodge called Spala. Most of the family found Spala to be a rather miserable stay due to it's inaccessibility and it's unreliable electricity. It was also known to be extremely damp, some corridors in the "lodge" were known to be covered in moss. Alas the stringent dictates of Imperial protocol. In November the Imperial family returned to Tsarkoe Selo ostensibly for the beginning of the Imperial social season of midnight balls , suppers, opera and ballet. Protocol dictated the Imperial family should reside in St. Petersburg in the Winter Palace during the 'season' but the Empress was exceedingly shy and felt awkward in society. The Tsar was just as happy as his wife to remain sequestered at Tsarkoe Selo preferring to allow Grand Duchess Vladimir, the ambitious German wife of the Tsar's uncle to preside over the festivities of the season in the capital.
There were two revolutions in Russia in the early 20th century1905 and 1917
1905 - Mass unrest and discontent in Russia led to Tsar Nicholas II disclaiming his absolute autocratic power by introducing Dumas in the October Manifesto. After 4 Dumas proved unsuccessful the Tsar regained his power until 1917, when the Bolsheviks (left wing political party) overthrew the Tsar and then murdered the last of the Romanov's in July 1918. Their dynasty ended thus leaving Russia in Communism.
Yes, Trotsky was a totalitarian in the sense that he would permit no deviation from the Bolshevik/Communist plan for the country whether the people wanted it or not. Trotsky was every bit as ruthless and oppressive as Lenin was toward anyone who voiced opposition to the Party line.
No, he was the son of a Lawyer of moderate wealth. He was more or less a member of the Middle Class, while Engels was the son of a wealthy business man who gave up much of his wealth to fund his and Marx's work.
The Provisional Government, first under Prince Georgy Lvov then under Alexander Kerensky ruled immediately before Lenin took control. Prior to the Provisional Government, Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia.
Yes, the USSR had many "concentration camps" but they were mainly forced labour camps, their was 53 separate camps and 423 labour colonies. Most of these were located in Western side of the USSR and along South and South east of the Soviet Union. These were called "Gulags". The USSR hold people in these Gulags for the simplest of crimes eg. Littering and all the way to Political Prisoners.
See related Link for more info.
Vladimir Lenin did not die in the Russian Revolution. He survived not only the revolution but also the following Russian civil War, which ended in 1920. Lenin died in 1924 of natural causes after suffering three strokes beginning in 1922.
yes,because since about history mikhail died long time ago
In Russian the word Stalin means "Man of Steel". He did it to improve his image.
In addition, his true last name, Dzhughashvili, identified him as a Georgian rather than as a Russian. In order to make himself more acceptable to the Russians in the Bolshevik Party, he adopted the name Stalin because it made him sound more Russian than he really was. The people of Russia probably would not have liked having a Georgian ruling their country.
Stalin was imprisoned and exiled several time in his life. He was arrested and jailed outside Baku in Bailov Prison in March 1908. Then he was sent into internal exile but escaped. He was recaptured on March 23, 1910 and again locked up in Bailov Prison and again sent into exile. Once again he escaped and went back to St. Petersburg. On September 9, 1910 he was caught a third time, imprisoned and on December 25 sent back into exile.
Stalin managed to get away from the town he was exiled to, but on February 23, 1913, he was again arrested and this time sentenced to exile in a particularly disagreeable town in Siberia, which is where he stayed for the next four years until the February Revolution in 1917 toppled the Tsar. With no Tsarist forces to arrest him again, Stalin got on a train back to St. Petersburg.
councils of nobles
War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy.
Lenin established the Soviet Union. After taking over Russia he entered into a treaty with Ukraine, Belorussia and the Transcaucasus Federation (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) to join together as one nation, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
To address the question that was actually asked, unlike the other two responses, I can recommend three excellent books, Russia, the People and the Power by Robert G. Kaiser, The Russians by Hedrick Smith, and Behind the High Kremlin Walls by Vladimir Solovyov and Elena Klepikova. Some other good ones include "Mig Pilot", that is by the pilot who flew his fighter to Japan in 1975, I forget his name, "Breaking With Moscow" by Arkady N. Schevchenko and anything by Alexander Solzhenitsyn.Michael MontagneAnswerWell, apart from the 'purges' of dissidents by those evil few with power in their hands - and over the years that meant killings by the million - life for the common people meant that they were well educated and well cared-for, and always knew where their next meal was coming from, which should be all that matters.
That is more than you can say for now, with our grab-as-grab-can society imposed on them via just one or two corrupt leaders now retired to fat lives abroad together with those with the riches which those 'leaders' permitted them to scoop from the rest during the few years since '91
Russia is now the ruins of what was a great able and cultured nation only a few years ago. The common people - the vast majority -now live in abject poverty, in a 'market economy', which means you need money to live, and in the Russian climate, which has to be experienced to be believed.
That shows the erosive power of finance in the hands of a few malicious amoral villains. And those are the ones who now rule'our' world.
That should make us think, and see exactly who they are who are now paying all our presidents to do what they want. - Shouldn't it?AnswerI'm sure that the Soviet government tried their best to provide a comfortable, peaceful and stable life for its citizens. Whether or not they actually did is a different story. Only those who were unswervingly loyal to the Party and its principles reaped the most material benefits. Of course, Party personnel reaped the most, followed by military and police forces. At the bottom of the barrel was the "worker" all of the bureaucrats were claiming to represent. AnswerGreetings from Russia! (Siberia)
Before 1991-93 we (Russians) could be shure in our future, we had guarantees of medical service and education for-free. Also we had normal life level. But we had not enough commodities and products.
After 8 years of anti-Russian "democracy" and wild/criminal capitalism Russian GNP became extremely lower than before that period. People became extremely poor in this 8 years. Economy was almost destroyed.
Now we have true democratically choosen pro-Russian government. And we grow rich and repair our economy.
P.S. Excuse me for my terrible EnglishAnswerIt is impossible to answer briefly to the question....First it was a cruel civil war and collapse of empire in the beginning, violence, blood, new hopes, -really hard times, after there came a period of modernization which was unseen before in the modern world's history - during a dozen of years ruined collapsed mostly agricultural country became one of the leaders in Europe..but people paid really tremendous price for that - terror, slavery of GULAG, starving villages, it is incredible that the nation was able to survive all that and was capable of real feat to save their country, what the Soviet people experienced in the 30s is almost nothing in comparison with terrors of the WWII or the Great Patriotic War as it is called in Russia and this nation showed tremendous strength and courage and won its War...Stalin was the most lucky tyran to have Russians under his power......sure there were traitors, there were about 1 million who joined Nazis Russian Liberation Army, some of them really thought that Russia should be saved from Stalin's tyrany, but if the Nazis won there were not be Russia any more...9th of May was a real triumph of soviet people, not of the criminal system that ruled them...and this country was ruined, devastated, lost millions of people - incredible, but it was the first to send a sattelite and human being in space - sure, there were lots of politics about that, but it was one more real triumph, the 60-x to my mind is the best time in the entire history of the USSR...main reason- people got much more freedom after the tyrany, after the 70s the country started slowly to slide to its collapse...corruption, decay of political elite, exhausting arms race with the US, fear of truth, time of inefficiency and incompetence...but collapse of the USSR just accelerated degradation in most of the former soviet republics, and this decay is not stopped yet...in the end of the 80s we had better health care sytem, better education, our science was on a higher level and the nation was less corrupted, simply people lived longer than now in Russia
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