He made them do what he said!
Peter the Great, Czar (Emperor) of Russia, built St. Petersburg as a "window to the west" as part of his efforts to make Russia more like civilized Europe than Asia.
His religion was Russian Orthodox Christianity. He had friends who were Catholic and Lutheran and attended a few services in the Lutheran church. He said he hated Jews more than Muslims but had 13 officers in his army hung when they were planning a pogram and hired Jews who would convert to Orthodoxy. He sent an atheist to Siberia because he said religion is the basis of an oath and without an oath there is no society. He had a girl friend and a wife who were Lutheran though the last converted on having their child. He certainly did not hate other religions and when told to burn all churches of the foreigners and throw them out of Russia on the deathbed of Joachim the head of the Orthodox Church, he went out and bought a "German" suit. He was supported as the Tzar by the Orthodox Church and had no reason not to practice the religion although he did make it subordinate to the government after the death of Adrian, the successor of Joachim.
Tsar Peter changed Russia by modernizing it. He built the great city of St. Petersburg (a modern and splendid city, but one created from a wasteland at an extremely heavy human cost) and adopted many European customs. Some may say he "Europeanized" the nation, causing sweeping changes across all levels of society and customs.
he had a sipmlified bureaucratic system that are like ministries or departments
Peter the Great was the czar of Russia in 1689. He decided to build Russia's first navy and he embarked on a policy of westernization. Westernization is the adaptation of western ideas, technology, and culture.
Divine right is the believe that a rulers power to rule came from God.
He was from Russia.
Peter the Great had enemies, one of whom was Charles XII of Sweden. He had the most powerful standing army in Europe. Peter wanted an entrance to the Baltic Sea since he had built ships for a war against the Ottoman Empire and entrance to the Black Sea. He could get no support for this on his first trip to Europe. On the trip back was persuaded a three pronged attack from Poland, Denmark and Russia would get him his port. Charles's army had defeated a much larger Russian army of Peter the Great's but were lured into Russia, did not get support they had counted on, had their supply lines from Sweden cut and then lost all at Poltava. He also fought Turkey and was almost taken captive to get a port again.
Peter the Great had more enemies at home than friends and kept them in check by using plain old terror. All the aristocratic families were torn between being his friend and getting power for them selves. He had friends therefore among them Jacob Dolgorusky and enemies like his cousin Vassily Dolgorusky who was exiled but had done him great services. The Golitzines were the same, Boris was his great friend and Vassily lover of his worst enemy . He had enemies among the generals like Sheremetov who also had won great victories for him, and as long as he lived would be faithful but supported his son Alexei. Families and individuals were torn because he was destroying old mores.
He also made enemies with the clergy since on the death of Patriarch Adrian after ten years of being head of the Orthodox Church in Russia he did not appoint a new head but made the church operate as a division of the State. He did not dare take on the church directly but held the Drunken Synod which had Catholic faux officials instead. He melted the church bells down when he needed more copper for cannons.
St. Petersburg, Russia
Nominally Peter I and his brother Ivan became co-tsars after death of their eldest brother, tsar Fedor Alexeyevich. In reality, only after he won in struggle with his sister Sophia who proclaimed herself some sort of regent.
NO, it is very bad to mix seafood and a diary product together. because it may cause an upset in your stomach area, and may induce vomiting.
As far as Social changes, in 1722, Peter created a new order of precedence, the "Table of Ranks", which replaced order of precedence by birthright. Obviously, this upset people who were born into the right of precedence. This kind of change in "standing" meets strong opposition when forced.
It would be similar to a new leader declaring that all heirs to the throne in a monarchy are suddenly not eligible to take the throne. Or if a worker's union suddenly demoted all its leaders and put cronies in those positions instead. People don't like when their "social standing" gets changed or removed.
Peter the great was a vivacious Czar who ruled from 1672 to 1725. His accomplishments were the creation of the first Russian Navy, expansion of trade, and military reforms. Peter the great established the City of St. Petersburg. Peter started the long journey of the modernization of Russia.
Territorial expansion, Peter I turned small Russia into a Russian Empire. Peter I also reorganized the Russian military along European lines. Built the first Russian naval base, Taganrog in 1698. In 1 year Peter I went from dreaming of a Navy (in 1695) to having a 30 ship fleet that were battle ready against the Ottomans in 1696.
There are several things that Peter 1 did to help modernize Russia. He required courtiers, state officials, and the military to shave their beards and adopt Western clothing styles. He also sought to gain more maritime outlets because at the time the only outlet he had was the White Sea. During this time he also brought in several ship makers to Russia so they could teach the Russian citizens how to make ships efficiently. Peter also sent delegations out to observe training methods of the Knights of Malta. He also established the new city of St. Petersburg as planned city that was westernized and could be compared to Paris for reasons such as the grand boulevards, large facades and the Winter Palace
hanfeizi believed that everyone was evil and that they had to be controlled by strict laws.
He was 10 years old when he became the official tzar, but started to rule since 17.
Peter the Great was an absolutist ruler because of a want for power and a belief that the power was his by right. He was traumatized at the age of 1o when he was first made the Tzar by a rebellion of the Strelzi who brutally killed two of his uncles, and over 60 people including his adviser Matveev hacking him to death in front of him. After that he hated the Streltsi and did not trust the aristocrats who encouraged this offering cash rewards for the murder of these people. Louis had a similar wish and belief, having been traumatized as a child by nobles during the Fronde in his youth, in which he had to hide with his mother from a similar rebellion. There was also in both a form of self-preservation. Both rulers had to subdue their respective nobility.
Peter the Great was obsessed with the practical and improving the economy of Russia. To make it a respected trading partner he turned a number of practices on their ear, such as outlawing the beard, a traditional part of Russian custom, and changing the style of women's clothing to a less cumbersome western one. He also made smuggling a light offense and got rid of tariffs on merchants, as well as starting many industries and mines. Most of his efforts were on getting connected with Europe by getting a sea port in a landlocked country and trade routes to Asia. He was labeled the Antichrist by the Orthodox church which was very conservative and competed with him for control of Russia. Louis XIV was the ultimate in a European power and all of Europe imitated his court and his manners. Like Peter he overhauled the method of taxing, cut nobles out of the collection with risen commoners entirely loyal to him given high positions. Like Peter and all effective monarchs of the time, he moved the country to mercantilism. Louis XIV effectively placed the country in a financial position just good enough to keep them out of treacherous waters. Peter came from a poor country and ran them almost bankrupt by 1722 but he spent the money in an manner that improved the future of his country. He spent it on wars for trade gain and sending aristocrats to gain needed skills as well as bringing in foreigner. Peasants in France were drafted into a month of work on a country-wide project each year as a show of how directly he controlled all aspects of his empire. Peter had a conscription system in which the aristocrats had to serve without end or lose their estates. Peasants who were drafted had a 25 year term of military service. They deserted at a rate of over 50% each year.
Peter the Great started all Russian naval enterprises, though his father tried and failed to make ships and a navy. Louis focusing on a large standing army and even larger wartime army. Peter had great success because the most powerful country in Europe at the time, Sweden was defeated by him after entering Russia with its large size, bitter winter and poor roads. He won in Persia also because they chose to surrender to him rather than the Ottomans. Louis XIV did well in the first part of his reign and poorly at the end. He was not able to put his grandson on the throne of France and Spain, and Peter who always did well but lacked all dignity could not keep his own Grandson Peter II off the throne despite his best efforts. Both rulers saw the importance of a strong army as part of their control.
Louis' most visible legacy was the great palace of Versailles, a model for all future rulers that wanted to demonstrate power and control. At the same time, Versailles was used to lure the restless nobility who saw their power equated to their ability to reside in luxury. At Versailles, the aristocracy was kept busy with endless parties and concerts, hunting and gambling, and dozens of diversions. In the midst of it all was the sun king, the epitome of absolute rule. As before mentioned, the intendant system was another method of keeping the nobility from maintaining power under his rule.
In Russia, Peter's 1703 construction of St. Petersburg on the Neva River achieved similar purposes. It was his "window to the west." Originally built as a fortress in the quest to deprive Sweden Baltic dominance, the city came to represent the ideals of Peter's vision. Peter's control of the nobility was linked with this city. He required all nobles to move there and as it was very far north, it cost far more than remaining on their estates. The two were opposites in that Louis XIV was very fond of ritual attending to the smallest detail at Versailles. His door was to be scratched on with the nail of the small finger, one had to have a mistress even if you loved your wife. He invented the term etiquette for cards he passed out telling guests what was permitted at his gatherings. Peter hated ritual. He said the nobles were not to spend a fortune on clothes, address him with his titles, bow, etc. Finally he told his advisers on his only trip to France right after the death of Louis XIV that the wealth of the aristocrats would be its downfall as the peasants were so poor. He saw that this would be their major problem.
Both Peter and Louis died leaving an uncertain future. Peter declared that he would say who succeeded him and then died saying "Give all to.." never finishing his sentence. Peter's second wife, Catherine, ruled with the help of advisers and for two years. Essentially Peter continued to rule through the vindictive but brilliant Menshikov. Following her death Russia continued to follow the lead of Germany and the west and never returned to Asiatic customs. In France, a regency oversaw the interests of the infant king left behind.
He made them lick a dead body because he was embarrassed when all of his nobles gagged in disgust at the carcus.
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Czar Peter I (later called the Great) wanted to westernize Russia, after he returned from the trip his mother sent him on to Europe. On his trip he found out that even Europe's poorest were richer then Russia's riches.
I had heard that his first wife and family were killed in an accident. Is that true?
Peter the Great traveled to Western Europe to figure out how the Russians could be more like Western Europeans. He wanted to modernize Russia's military and industries. He was determine to bring Russia up to date with the more advanced countries of Western Europe, his goal was to modernize Russia and make it a more sophisticated country. When he returned to Russia, he made changes in the government, Russian culture (forced nobility to dress like Westerners and to cut their beards), made changes in the Russian Orthodox church, moved the capital to St. Petersburg and raised taxes to pay for reconstructing the military.
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* Imposed heavy taxes.
Give me food and I will live give me water and I will die what am I?
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