Lenin disagreed with Marx in that the economy of Russia was not capitalized. Marx thought Socialism is only possible from capitalized industrial society. Lenin felt the party could take over from the top down rather than bottom up. The party would then industrialize the country before communism.
Leon Bronstein was born in the Southern Ukraine on October 26, 1879, the son of a Jewish farmer. He moved to Odessa at age 9 to live with relatives and attend a prestigious private school. After graduation, he entered Odessa University. Leon was attracted to radical politics. The level of violence and discontent began to rise along the Russian countryside, brought on largely by Russian failure in the Russo-Japanese war and Bloody Sunday. "He was drawn into an underground socialist circle and introduced to Marxism"- Encyclopedia Britannica. Trotsky was soon organizing the Southern Russian Workers Union, which led to his first arrest and exile to Siberia."Though Trotsky was forced into exile, the unripeness of the authoritatian form of government spared his life for fifteen years."- Paul Mattick. While in exile, Leon married Alexandra Sokolovskaya, a Marxist radical who bore him two daughters. Leon escaped two years later and left his family behind. From then on, Leon assumed the last name Trotsky.
He went to England where he met Vladimir Lenin, instigator of the Communist Revolution. Trotsky attended the Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party where he broke from Lenin.
Lenin's faction of the RSDP was the Bolsheviks, or majority; the other half was the Mensheviks or minority. Trotsky harshly criticised Lenin's committee policy as a slippery slope to dictatorship. Lenin's idea of forgoing democracy in order to ensure equality was emblematic of his philosophy that the end justifies the means. Simply put, all that matters is that the goal is achieved, no matter how one arrives at it.
This break would lead to long years of estrangement between the two. In Paris, Trotsky met Natalia Sedova; although they were never married, they lived together until Trotsky's Death. They had two sons - Lyova and Sergey. In 1905, Trotsky traveled to St. Petersburg to play a major role in a revolutionary attempt. Trotsky was a hero to the revolutionists, but the revolution soon collapsed. Trotsky was arrested, but he managed to escape before arriving at Siberia for imprisonment.
The Trotsky family then moved to Vienna where he lived until the first World War erupted in 1914. They then moved to Paris. Trotsky wrote articles and edited a newspaper, condemning the imperialist war. The Germans were striving for world domination by force, which Trotsky was wholly against. He felt that communist domination could only work if workers worldwide voluntarily threw off the shackles of their oppressors. Instead, the Soviet Union later would invade Eastern Europe, aggressively overthrowing governments and instituting puppet regimes.
Trotsky then bounced around from France to Spain to New York; no government would let him stay for long. During this period, Trotsky was equally critical of the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, but during the war he drifted back to Lenin's side.
Lenin led the revolution. When he returned from switzerland, he inspired the masses to revolt against the Burgeoise. Also, he inspired soldiers to convert to the cause. Thus, he was a major influence in the revolution. Partly right. In fact Russia had threee revolutions to deal with. 1905 - after a enormous defeat against Japan (the entire navy was lost) the Tsar had to deal with the Bolsjewist and Mensjewist party who took over control over several cities. The revolution was surpressed, and Nikolai II promised to reform the country. This didn't happen though and in February 1917, nikolai II was abducted and a temporary government was formed. Main people in this government were anton Kerenski (a former journalist if I'm not mistaken) and Prince Llov (a liberal) Allthough thy tried to reform the country, they didn't succeed to prevent the bolsjewiki to overthrow this government in november 1917 (done by Lenin, trotski and Stalin). Lenin took control over the government. A bit later, the civil war started which lasted for three years (1917 - 1920) eventually won by Lenin and his frieds (the jew Trotsky was the main architect to victory here). Since then, propaganda stated only one heroic revolution took place in 1917. The truth is, that Lenin just entered the room and said something like. Gentlemen, we take over control. It seems as if WWI had just as much responsibility for the Oct. Revolution as the Bolsheviks did. The autocracy surely would've retained power without entrence into the war. The situation in Russia by 1917 had become very unsatisfactory and Lenins return to the coutry with the help of the Germans was vital. This is not because of Lenins major influence on the revolution but his presence in a moment of possible change to the government, the war played a big part but it was Lenin who utalised the situation to his advantage and he knew when the time had come for a possible Bolshevik take over.
One unique idea of communism is that government would wither away and disappear as being unnecessary once everyone believed in the communist way of life. Also the idea that Marx suggests is the recourse economics of it, although not a lot of Marxists states have took this. It's still a unique aspect which has never been included in Political Philosophy.
The Bolshevicks actually took power from the provisional government on October 25th 1917 (Note: this is by the Christian calendar, back then the Russians used a different kind of calendar, and that is why it is celebrated in November.) but the actual revolution started on Bloody Sunday in 1905 when the people of Russia went to the Czars winter palace and asked that he help his people out of poverty, but the Czar ordered for his men to fire on the protesters.
There were two revolutions in Russia in the early 20th century1905 and 1917
1905 - Mass unrest and discontent in Russia led to Tsar Nicholas II disclaiming his absolute autocratic power by introducing Dumas in the October Manifesto. After 4 Dumas proved unsuccessful the Tsar regained his power until 1917, when the Bolsheviks (left wing political party) overthrew the Tsar and then murdered the last of the Romanov's in July 1918. Their dynasty ended thus leaving Russia in Communism.
Yes, Trotsky was a totalitarian in the sense that he would permit no deviation from the Bolshevik/Communist plan for the country whether the people wanted it or not. Trotsky was every bit as ruthless and oppressive as Lenin was toward anyone who voiced opposition to the Party line.
The Provisional Government, first under Prince Georgy Lvov then under Alexander Kerensky ruled immediately before Lenin took control. Prior to the Provisional Government, Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia.
Vladimir Lenin did not die in the Russian Revolution. He survived not only the revolution but also the following Russian civil War, which ended in 1920. Lenin died in 1924 of natural causes after suffering three strokes beginning in 1922.
Peopple's lifestyles were very poor and the culture was oppresive because it was a communist society
The fledgling Soviet state was undergoing a period of social & economic upheaval, so how you fared under the new regime depended in large part on where you'd been under the old. But times were difficult for everyone after years of war, revolution, civil war and foreign intervention. For those formerly better-off it was a time of loss and painful adjustment. For those who'd had little, the new regime held out the hope of improvement, though many (especially in the countryside) clung to the old values of village, church and ethnic identity in preference to the Bolsheviks' attacks on religion and (mostly urban) efforts at modernisation in the arts, literature etc. The harshness of communist rule during the period of civil war (1918-20) gave way to a less restrictive economic policy from 1921, but drought and famine in the south of the country claimed up to 5 million lives in the following year. Lenin died just as the newly-created USSR was entering eight years of recovery (1923-30) that would take living standards above pre-war levels before the strains of forced economic transformation and renewed emphasis on class war took their toll.
Lenin established the Soviet Union. After taking over Russia he entered into a treaty with Ukraine, Belorussia and the Transcaucasus Federation (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) to join together as one nation, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
To address the question that was actually asked, unlike the other two responses, I can recommend three excellent books, Russia, the People and the Power by Robert G. Kaiser, The Russians by Hedrick Smith, and Behind the High Kremlin Walls by Vladimir Solovyov and Elena Klepikova. Some other good ones include "Mig Pilot", that is by the pilot who flew his fighter to Japan in 1975, I forget his name, "Breaking With Moscow" by Arkady N. Schevchenko and anything by Alexander Solzhenitsyn.Michael MontagneAnswerWell, apart from the 'purges' of dissidents by those evil few with power in their hands - and over the years that meant killings by the million - life for the common people meant that they were well educated and well cared-for, and always knew where their next meal was coming from, which should be all that matters.
That is more than you can say for now, with our grab-as-grab-can society imposed on them via just one or two corrupt leaders now retired to fat lives abroad together with those with the riches which those 'leaders' permitted them to scoop from the rest during the few years since '91
Russia is now the ruins of what was a great able and cultured nation only a few years ago. The common people - the vast majority -now live in abject poverty, in a 'market economy', which means you need money to live, and in the Russian climate, which has to be experienced to be believed.
That shows the erosive power of finance in the hands of a few malicious amoral villains. And those are the ones who now rule'our' world.
That should make us think, and see exactly who they are who are now paying all our presidents to do what they want. - Shouldn't it?AnswerI'm sure that the Soviet government tried their best to provide a comfortable, peaceful and stable life for its citizens. Whether or not they actually did is a different story. Only those who were unswervingly loyal to the Party and its principles reaped the most material benefits. Of course, Party personnel reaped the most, followed by military and police forces. At the bottom of the barrel was the "worker" all of the bureaucrats were claiming to represent. AnswerGreetings from Russia! (Siberia)
Before 1991-93 we (Russians) could be shure in our future, we had guarantees of medical service and education for-free. Also we had normal life level. But we had not enough commodities and products.
After 8 years of anti-Russian "democracy" and wild/criminal capitalism Russian GNP became extremely lower than before that period. People became extremely poor in this 8 years. Economy was almost destroyed.
Now we have true democratically choosen pro-Russian government. And we grow rich and repair our economy.
P.S. Excuse me for my terrible EnglishAnswerIt is impossible to answer briefly to the question....First it was a cruel civil war and collapse of empire in the beginning, violence, blood, new hopes, -really hard times, after there came a period of modernization which was unseen before in the modern world's history - during a dozen of years ruined collapsed mostly agricultural country became one of the leaders in Europe..but people paid really tremendous price for that - terror, slavery of GULAG, starving villages, it is incredible that the nation was able to survive all that and was capable of real feat to save their country, what the Soviet people experienced in the 30s is almost nothing in comparison with terrors of the WWII or the Great Patriotic War as it is called in Russia and this nation showed tremendous strength and courage and won its War...Stalin was the most lucky tyran to have Russians under his power......sure there were traitors, there were about 1 million who joined Nazis Russian Liberation Army, some of them really thought that Russia should be saved from Stalin's tyrany, but if the Nazis won there were not be Russia any more...9th of May was a real triumph of soviet people, not of the criminal system that ruled them...and this country was ruined, devastated, lost millions of people - incredible, but it was the first to send a sattelite and human being in space - sure, there were lots of politics about that, but it was one more real triumph, the 60-x to my mind is the best time in the entire history of the USSR...main reason- people got much more freedom after the tyrany, after the 70s the country started slowly to slide to its collapse...corruption, decay of political elite, exhausting arms race with the US, fear of truth, time of inefficiency and incompetence...but collapse of the USSR just accelerated degradation in most of the former soviet republics, and this decay is not stopped yet...in the end of the 80s we had better health care sytem, better education, our science was on a higher level and the nation was less corrupted, simply people lived longer than now in Russia
Lenin did many things when he was in charge of Russia and then the Soviet Union. Some are:
There are of course many things he did, but these are the most significant.
He wasn't afraid of Stalin. Lenin could have easily had Stalin executed anytime from 1917 through his death. Lenin believed, according to his testament, that Stalin would destroy the "world revolution" and believed that if given the power Lenin held during his tenure, Stalin would abuse it. The Central Committee ignored Lenin's testament, and by 1938, the majority of the members of the Central Committee deeply regretted doing so.
Lenin found Stalin too power-hungry and greedy to be the ruler of the largest country in the world, but never stated he feared Stalin.
Lenin felt that Stalin was far too harsh and that he would not make a good leader, but after his unexpected death in 1924, Lenin did not name his succesor, and Stalin took that chance to take power.
The Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov came to power immediately after the March Revolution. Three months later Alexander Kerensky took over the Provisional Government. In October, Vladimir Lenin took all power when he and the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government.
It's more of an ideology, but I guess you could call it a philosophy. Lenin beleived in a form of goverment called Communism, witch was created by a British man named Karl Marx who explained his idea in a book called The Communist Manifesto
Lenin's marxism. a communist country with a twist from V.I Lenin. the Russian Revolution was a proletariate movement with Marxist communist ideals
The Russian Revolution was caused by several major factors:
1. The partial industrialization of Russia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which created an urban working class in places like St. Petersburg and Moscow that could organize against its exploitation through unions and workers councils (known as 'the soviets'). This enabled the workers to work together much more effectively against their bosses then the scattered, isolated, and thus largely de-politicized peasantry. The cities were also connected via trade and communication to the outside world, where intellectuals and workers alike had access to revolutionary ideas from western Europe such as Marxism.
2. The desperate poverty and gross inequality that marked Russian society created a deep well of discontent. The czar and the aristocracy, as well as Russia's capitalist class, lived in opulent luxury in palaces such as the Hermitage while most Russians lived in medieval conditions. In the countryside, most farmers still used wooden plow. Hundreds of thousands died from epidemics on a regular basis. 1/3 of all Russian babies died before their first birthday.
3. The entry of Russia into World War I brought all the class tensions of Russian society to a boiling point, especially when Russia's badly equipped and led army suffered a series of disastrous defeats. Food riots broke out in Russia's major cities and the countryside. The army and navy began to mutiny against a government they had no desire to fight and die for.
4. The czar of Russia, Nicholas II, was a weak and indecisive leader. He went back and forth between making concessions to his people and then opting for repressive measures. Therefore, he both allowed breathing space for a revolutionary movement to develop while creating fresh grievances that strengthened the political forces against him. Most importantly though, he was attempting to reform a corrupt, repressive, outdated system that could not be reformed at all.
5. Although many different groups were opposed to the czar, the Russian revolution was successful because the group that ended up leading it, the Bolsheviks, were dedicated, well-organized, and well-led.
Note: What is commonly called the "Russian Revolution" refers to the events which occurred in 1917 (there was also a smaller and less successful revolution in 1905).
The Bolshevik Revolution is the October 1917 Revolution in Russia. In 1917 there were two revolutions. The first was the February Revolution in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and a Provisional Government was put up in place of the Tsarist government. The Provisional Government was not a Marxist/Communist government. The second was the October Revolution in which Lenin and his Bolshevik Part followers overthrew the weak Provisional Government and imposed a Marxist government in Russia. The October Revolution is called the Bolshevik Revolution because that is when the Bolsheviks, later to be known as the Communist Party, took control of the country.
If you mean the program in effect for a few years during and immediately after the Revolution (1917), in my opinion, yes. Indeed, many Bolsheviks went into business for themselves under the NEP. However, the ostensible reason for the NEP was to provide the capitalist bridge between feudalism and socialism that Marxist-Leninist theory required.
1929 was the year that Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Union.
Lenin was absolutely a dedicated revolutionary. He was so dedicated that he used Marxism as a philosophical basis to convince the people of Russia that the Tsar should be overthrown, but he was not patient enough to wait for the people of Russia to become a true Marxian proletariat of workers. When he was able to take over the country, he did so in a political insurrection against a weak government. It was not at all a Marxian revolution.
Lenin became dedicated to revolution when his older brother Alexander was shot for plotting to assassinate Tsar Alexander III.
Lenin branded himself a "dedicated revolutionary." Part of his Leninist philosophy was that a revolution should be conducted by a small group of "professional revolutionaries," rather than by a large but loosely organized mass of workers as Karl Marx had predicted.
I'm not sure but i think it's false.(This was made by Cristina):)
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