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Who coined the term Fascism?

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โˆ™ 2011-05-22 11:24:08

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Fascism arose in Europe after World War I when many people yearned for national unity and strong leadership. In Italy, Benito Mussolini used his charisma to establish a powerful fascist state.

Benito Mussolini coined the term "fascism" in 1919 to describe his political movement. He adopted the ancient Roman fascesas his symbol. This was a bundle of rods tied around an ax, which represented the power of Rome.

Mussolini established the first fascist regime, followed soon after by others, including Nazi Germany. Fascism, however, differed somewhat from one nation to another. Thus, scholars often disagree on a precise definition of fascism. Even so, they tend to agree on its common characteristics such as:

Absolute Power of the State: Fascist regimes have a strong centralized state, or national government. The fascist state seeks total control over all major parts of society. Individuals must give up their private needs and rights to serve the needs of the whole society as represented by the state.

Rule by a Dictator: A single dictator runs the fascist state and makes all the important decisions. This leader often uses charisma, a magnetic personality, to gain the support of the people.

Corporatism: Fascists believe in taming capitalism by controlling labor and factory owners. Unions, strikes, and other labor actions are illegal. Although private property remains, the state controls the economy.

Extreme Nationalism: The fascist state uses national glory and the fear of outside threats to build a new society based on the "common will" of the people. Fascists believe in action and looking at national myths for guidance rather than relying on the "barren intellectualism" of science and reason.

Superiority of the Nation's People: Fascists hold up the nation's people as superior to other nationalities. They typically strengthen and unify the dominant group in a nation while stifling dissent and persecuting minority groups.

Militarism and Imperialism: Fascists believe that great nations show their greatness by conquering and ruling weak nations. Fascists believe the state can survive only if it successfully proves its military superiority in war.

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โˆ™ 2011-05-22 11:24:08
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