Immune System

Why blood group O can still transfer their blood to A despite the reaction between antibody A of blood O and antigen A of blood A?

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2009-04-26 19:53:35
2009-04-26 19:53:35

Common blood can be transfered to rare blood but rare blood can not be transfered to common blood.

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Binding or equilibrium constant which is the "degree of fit" between the antigen and antibodyAntigen densityAntigen-antibody ratioTemperatureIonic strengthIncubation timepH



compare between the precipitation and agglutination compare between the precipitation and agglutination


The relationship between antigen and antibody is antigen is the foreign disease and antibody is the body which protects the body from foreign pathogen.


Basically to explain this, an antigen is any type of pathogen that causes disease, while an antibody is something that combats against the antigen.


-the principle of antigen-antibody reaction is a process of the immune system in which immunoglobulin-coated B cells recognize a specific antigen and stimulate antibody production. T cells also play an essential role in the reaction. An antigen-antibody reaction begins with the binding of antigens to antibodies to form antigen-antibody complexes. These complexes may render toxic antigens harmless (neutralization), agglutinize antigens on the surface of microorganisms, or activate the complement system by exposing the complement binding sites on antibodies. Certain complement protein molecules immediately bind to these sites and trigger the activity of the other complement protein molecules, which cause antigen-bearing cells to lyse. Antigen-antibody reactions may start immediately with antigen contact or as much as 48 hours later. They normally produce immunity but may also be responsible for allergy, autoimmunity, and fetomaternal hematologic incompatibility. In the immediate allergic response, the antigen-antibody reaction activates certain enzymes and causes an imbalance between those enzymes and their inhibitors


Antigen binding site or epitope is a part of an antigen that is recognized by the antibody. Paratope is a part of an antibody that binds on epitope.


polyclonal antobody is the antibody produced for many or non specific antigens but antiserum is the antibody for a specific antigen


An antigen is a substance/molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system, which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. These invaders can be molecules such as pollen or cells such as bacteria. The term originally came from antibody generator.


The antibody is a molecule that the immune system creates to bind to the antigen to mark it for destruction by the macrophages.



Hepatitis B antigen means you have either been exposed to, or have had Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B antibody (I assume that is what you mean) is the level of protection you have against the disease if exposed. Antigen: do you or have you had it? Antibody: Are you protected if exposed?


the autoimmune reaction is the reaction between the antibody and antigene when both come from the same body but the isoimmune reaction is between the antigene and antibody produced for the same antigene ( the same according to the type but not the immunity )


difference between an antibody and an antigen


Precipitation is when two liquid (soluble) substances come together to make a visible reaction, such as antibody binding with an immunoglobulin- both are in liquid state. Agglutination is when one of the substances is not liquid; for example antibody binding with a cell or with a latex particle antigen solution.


When the immune system cause cross linking of cells or particles an agglutination reaction occurs and the responsible antibody is an agglutininAgglutinogens are1. any substance that, acting as an antigen, stimulates the production of agglutinin.2. the particulate antigen used in conducting agglutination tests.


When the immune system cause cross linking of cells or particles an agglutination reaction occurs and the responsible antibody is an agglutininAgglutinogens are1. any substance that, acting as an antigen, stimulates the production of agglutinin.2. the particulate antigen used in conducting agglutination tests.


When the immune system cause cross linking of cells or particles an agglutination reaction occurs and the responsible antibody is an agglutininAgglutinogens are1. any substance that, acting as an antigen, stimulates the production of agglutinin.2. the particulate antigen used in conducting agglutination tests.


When your body is introduced to the Hepatitis B virus, the virus is considered the antigen (the surface antigen)and this should trigger your immune system to develop antibody against this antigen to destroy it. Most people do develop Hep B surface antibody when infected with the Hep B virus. Some people do not develop the antibodyand go on to have only circulating Hep B surface antigen - which means they are a carrier and can continue to have the virus and infection. For the majority of the population that develop the Hep B surface antibody, this conveys immunity to the virus for life.


Antigen is a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.Agglutinogens are1. any substance that, acting as an antigen, stimulates the production of agglutinin.2. the particulate antigen used in conducting agglutination tests.


Antigen-antibody complexes would form a white precipitate between the bovine serum albumin and the swine serum albumin.


Specific because the antibody is produced especially for that antigen only and won't do anything to any other antigens.


Antigens are substances that provoke an immune response (they're the ultimate target for the immune system). Antibodies are simply proteins that are secreted as a result of the antigen provoked immune response. In short, antigens cause the disease and antibodies cure it.



An antigen can be anything from virus to bacteria to a soluble protein from outside or inside a cell. This includes both foreign and self peptides. An antibody that finds an appropriate antigen will bind to it and your B and T cells determine if it's self or not. A processed antigen came from cytosol. A protein will be taken by ubiquitin to a proteosome where it is broken up into small peptides. These peptides will make their way into the endoplasmic reticulum (through TAP) where they are exposed to MHC's.



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