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Why is the action potential generated in neurons only?

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2007-05-16 10:32:12
2007-05-16 10:32:12

may be there are specific arrangement of sodium and potassium ion channels in neurons which is not found in any other cell andthis arrangement is necessary for action potential generation but i am ot sure what kind of arrangement is needed for action potential generation and what kind is presentr in neurons and other cells .

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The generation of a second action in some neurons can only happen after a refractory period, when the membrane potential has returned it's base level or even more negative. This is because some types of Na+ channels inactivate at a positive potential and then require a negative potential to reset. Other neurons have other types of channels and can fire multiple action potentials to a single depolarization.


The only other cells that are similar to neurons in the body are the muscles cells because they both conduct an action potential, obey the All-or-None Law, and can be polarized and depolarized.


The areas that have had the action potential are refractory to a new action potential.


no, dendrites and cell bodies can only have graded potential. action potential only occurs in axons


Here are the factors which affect the propagation of an action potential:1. Refractory periodDuring the absolute refractory period, a second action potential cannot be generated as the Na+ gates are inactivated. As for the relative refractory period, a second action potential can only be generated with a strong stimulus as some Na+ gates are still inactivated. This results in the action potential traveling in a unidirectional manner.2. Axon diameterThe larger the fiber, the less resistance there is to the local current flow. The impulse can hence be conducted more quickly. Smaller fibers have more resistance so the impulse travels more slowly.3. MyelinationSaltatory conduction is possible in myelinated axons. During saltatory conduction, the action potential is only generated at the myelin sheath gaps and the electric signal can jump rapidly from gap to gap. This allows the impulse to travel 30 times faster than in unmyelinated axons.


The Action Potential When a memrain reaches the the threshold potential. The threshold potential is around -55 mV.


The muscle has unique features that are only in the heart. These muscles are involuntary striated muscle which are only found in the wall of the heart. This is specialised muscle that can contract, Cardiac muscle, like other muscles, can contract, but it can also carry an action potential (i.e. conduct electricity), like the neurons that constitute nerves. Furthermore, some of the cells have the ability to generate an action potential, known as cardiac muscle automaticity.


The muscle has unique features that are only in the heart. These muscles are involuntary striated muscle which are only found in the wall of the heart. This is specialized muscle that can contract, Cardiac muscle, like other muscles, can contract, but it can also carry an action potential (i.e. conduct electricity), like the neurons that constitute nerves. Furthermore, some of the cells have the ability to generate an action potential, known as cardiac muscle automaticity.


In absolute refractory period, none of channels are reconfigured, so that second active potential cannot be generated no matter how large the stimulus current is applied to the neuron. In contrast, in relative refractory period, some but not all of channels are reconfigured, another action potential can be generated but only by a greater stimulus current thatn that originally needed.




Neurons are involved in signaling; the propagation of action potentials and the release of substances that effect other tissues. It is information in the wider context of the word since the individual signal only has significance in relation to the activities of other neurons as well.


The Volley Principle is an information encoding scheme used in human hearing. Nerve cells transmit information by generating brief electrical pulses called action potentials. Sound is encoded by producing an action potential for each cycle of the vibration, eg. 200Hz results in a neuron producing 200 action potentials per second. BUT, neurons can only produce action potentials around 300 to 500 Hz. The human ear overcomes this problem by allowing several nerve cells to take turns performing this single task. The volley principle was proposed to deal with this apparent anomaly between the behaviour of single neurons and groups of neurons.


If they are neurons they have an axon, some cell types do communicate using gap-junctions. Yes, some complex sensory organs ( in the retina and organ of Corti for example) do not have axons. These cells liberate transmitter from their soma directly onto postsynaptic neurons in proportion to the membrane potential change they experience.


The Refractory period is when a second action potential is possible, but unlikely; second action potential only if the stimulus is sufficiently strong. The refractory period helps to prevent backflow of Sodium.


The muscle has unique features that are only in the heart.These muscles are involuntary striated muscle which are only found in the wall of the heart. This is specialised muscle that can contract, Cardiac muscle, like other muscles, can contract, but it can also carry an action potential (i.e. conduct electricity), like the neurons that constitute nerves.Furthermore, some of the cells have the ability to generate an action potential, known as cardiac muscle automaticity.Read more: Why_is_the_cardiac_muscle_unusual



The amplitude is about +35 to +40 Millivolts I believe this is incorrect, as this would only raise the resting membrane potential from -70mV to -35 or -40. An action potential needs to raise the membrane potential from -70 mV to +30 mV, so the amplitude needs to be 100 mV.


Irrespective of what the stimuli entails, the probability that the neuron will fire will be changed by its input. For instance, if the sum of all the inputs at a given time produce local membrane hyperpolarization, then there will a reduced probability that the neuron will fire an action potential. And vice versa. In other words, the action potential frequency is the only outcome that is possible. However, the value of this frequency can be anywhere from 0-20 cycles per second for most neurons.


The part of a spinal nerve that contains only sensory neurons is called the ventral root. There's also the axons of motor neurons and axons of sensory neurons.


Neurons in their resting state are normally fairly dormant, the "none" meaning they don't pass current along their axons because their ion channels are closed. A small, threshold amount of current into a neuron will trigger a massive cascade of ion flow, the "all". It's like a dam breaking or putting your tongue on a car battery, where prior build up of potential is released in a large surge. The usual context for this phrase is *neurons* vs. *nerves*. Neurons are (relatively) "all or none", nerves aren't. Nerves (tissue) are composed of many different neurons (cells), many of which have different thresholds and propagation characteristics. Stimulating a nerve generally causes only part of the individual neurons to be activated -- a "graded" response.



The cells of heart muscle are striated (like stripes on a tie) as is skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found only in the walls of the heart. They can contract but also carry an action potential (i.e. conduct electricity), like the neurons that constitute nerves. Some of the cells have the ability to generate an action potential, known as cardiac muscle automaticity. That is they beat on their own and in union with each other.


All or nothing response of an action potential (AP), refers simply to the fact that an AP will either occur, or not. There is no gradient, no half APs or double APs. The only option is AP, or no AP. Like in computer binary, the response is either 1 (an AP) or 0 (no AP). All the factors trying to induce (or inhibit) an action potential (i.e other action potentials, EPSPs and IPSPs) add up (summate) at the axon hillock, (aka the trigger zone). Here, if the stimulation is big enough an action potential will occur. If the stimulation is not big enough, no action potential occurs.


No, only in your brain.



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