Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human physiology is the study of the human body relevant to the functions of the organs and systems. It provides a biological baseline for the five senses including the different systems, so that the body can operate normally.

130,713 Questions
Conditions and Diseases
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sinus Infections

What causes bumps on the back of your tongue?

The tongue has lots of small spots on it for taste and sensation. They are not usually very noticeable. If spots are an unusual color, cause irritation, or other symptoms accompany them, they can be the sign of a health problem.

Human Anatomy and Physiology
Drinking Water

Is drinking too much water toxic?

Yes, drinking too much water can be toxic - except it is very hard to drink too much fresh, clean water to be able to die. Normal healthy people would need to drink on the order of 20 liters per day for it to be toxic but people with some medical problems, particularly the elderly and very young, can get toxic on much lesser amounts. Also people with psychiatric disorders, most notably schizophrenia.

Drinking too much water is called polydipsia. This, as well as several other processes, can cause low blood concentrations of sodium, which is known as (dilutional) hyponatremia.

Growth Rates
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Skeletal System

Why do babies have more bones than adults?

Over the course of childhood and adolescence, many bones in the skull and pelvis fuse together. These are the largest and widest parts of a baby's body, having them composed of several loosely connected bones permits them to flex more during birth, making the process easier on both mother and baby. In adults it is more important for these same bones to be hard and strong, so by then they are mostly fused into a small number of larger bones.
It depends on how you define "bone". In absolute terms, we are born with the same number of articulated skeletal members as we have throughout our lives; however, at birth some of these "bones" have only begun to ossify, such that they wouldn't show up on an X-ray. To ossify is to "turn to bone." Anatomically, this refers to depositing calcium in the cartilage to make it harder. Since X- rays show only calcified bone, uncalcified cartilage won't show up, even though that part of the skeleton is there and fully functional. So, if you restrict "bone" to mean "only those calcified bits of the skeleton that show up on X- rays," then newborns have fewer bones. If, on the other hand, you refer to a each skeletal member as a "bone," then newborns and adults have the same numbers.
Because as you grow older some of your bones grow together to form single ones.
Infants have three separate bones in their skull when they are born. The areas between these bones remain soft prior to birth, allowing the skull to remain malleable so it may pass through the birth canal more easily. These bones naturally fuse as the baby grows, becoming a single bone by adulthood.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Why do men like breasts?

Men like breasts for a variety of reasons, both subconscious and conscious. They are aesthetically pleasing, they are a sign of fertility and they are just generally nice.

See related links for more info.

AnswerIt is part of the natural sex drive. Most (not all) guys are drawn to what represents a sexually healthy female. It is a hard wired as part of the instinctual human need to reproduce.


It probably has something to do with a subconscious love that comes from them being a food source for some babies.


Guys are visually stimulated and since the breast are often thought of as a sexual item it stimulates guys.


In our society they are slightly forbidden so that makes them exciting. They simply look great on a girl.


Simply because they're part of what makes up attraction towards a girl. Looking at them is just enjoyable for most men. Touching them is connected to enjoyment in several different ways. There may be an instinct to touch things that look nice or, in case of stroking and caressing them, finding pleasure in the intimacy and in giving pleasure to the girl.

The main reason is that if you have big breast some guys cannot stop looking at them right? Well the reason is that they get turned on easily from looking at them because they know if they get a chance to have sex with you they will want to do more than just stare.


Some people think it has to do with being breast fed as infants, they find them comforting as it reminds them of their mother's nursing. However, this doesn't exactly hold up since not all infants are breastfed. It's probably more instinct than anything.

Some say it is mostly aesthetic appeal. Just like girls tend to prefer their men with some muscular definition because it is more interesting, men tend to prefer women with breasts because it is more interesting. Personally, I think that it's more because men don't have breasts. Since they lack them, they find them more interesting.

There may also be a latent anthropological factor in that breasts may be an indicator of a woman's ability to provide for a newborn baby.


The reason men like to look at and touch women's breasts is very simple, and is to do with our survival instincts.

Breasts are a secondary sexual characteristic of human females: that is, they aren't essential to reproduction but they play a part in distinguishing between the appearance of the sexes, and so are important in attracting a mate. Men's extra height, heavier build, beards and body hair play a similar role.

Animals look for signs that a potential mate will breed successfully: in women, breasts and wider hips are features which indicate a woman is ready and equipped for childbearing. Naturally-produced scents also signal to both sexes that the potential partner is healthy and ready for breeding. This isn't some ancient precursor to modern sexual attraction: it is sexual attraction; it has never changed.

There's no point, as far as any species is concerned, in taking a mate who cannot reproduce or doesn't appear likely to live long enough to raise young, so all animals - not just humans - as they mature, develop ways to indicate they are a good investment in the future of the species.

As cultures become more sophisticated - and this goes back to the earliest days of mankind - people devise ways to enhance their secondary sexual characteristics; to make themselves appear more attractive, more noticeable, to a potential mate.

It's that simple.

It is because they represent sex. A few of guy's have said...

1. Taste good.

2. Fun to Squeeze.

3. They bounce when girls run.

4. It make them think about sex

5. Guys instinct

They might not be the only reasons.

Breasts are a part of what makes up a guy's attraction towards a girl. Looking at them is just enjoyable for most men. Touching them is connected to enjoyment in several different ways. Those can be for example simply calming the urge to touch things that look nice or, in case of stroking and caressing them, finding pleasure in the intimacy and in giving pleasure to the girl.

Answer- Subconscious jealousy that they don't have it.

- Genetic program in the man's mind to allow for reproduction.

- It is awesome to them.

You get a sexual feeling on how they look and they sometimes like to drink milk.
Men have their fetishes just like everyone else, and some men like boobs.
Because they compliment the beauty of the female being...or is it because they are just awesome ( they look good and feel even better ).

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What are the levels of organization in a human body starting with the smallest unit?

The levels in the body begin with the cell, all cells that are the same and work together are called tissues, tissues that work together are called organs, organs working together are called organ systems, and these systems working together are called an organism. An easy way to remember this is: Cells>tissues>organs>organ systems>organism.

Martial Arts
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Massage Therapy

What are the pressure points on the body?

The American Heart Association has distinguished 11 known pressure points on either side of the human body. In diagnosing Fibromyalgia, doctors check eighteen specific points on the body, if the patient has eleven of the eighteen causing them pain, then they are diagnosed as having fibromyalgia.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has defined hundreds of points on the body, though less than 100 are used in regular therapy.

There are also what are called endangerment points that are in areas that have nerves and blood vessels. These areas require special training in order to use them therapeutically or as a form of self defense.

There is no way to know how many pressure points are in the body.

Pressure points differ from each person. A muscular person would be more prone to pressure points than an obese person, and just striking or holding a pressure point might not be enough.

Self-defense Answer A pressure point can typically be found at any space between bones.

Pressure Points:

When a person is severely cut and begins to bleed, it is time for quick action. First air for severe bleeding involves applying pressure over the wound. Sometimes it is possible to press the artery above the wound against the bone behind it, and stop the bleeding. This place is called a pressure point. A pressure point is also an excellent location to take a person's pulse.

Understanding Pressure Point Strikes:

Striking to a hyel does not necessarily immediately knock a person out or cause a body part to become instantly numb, as has been propagated by many martial arts charlatans. Self-defense may be understood by the analogy of a body part that has fallen asleep, when proper circulation has been cut off from it.

When applying forced pressure to specific hyel, your goal is not to magically tender your opponent lifeless. What you are planning to achieve is both short term and long term interruption of your attacker's energy. A listening carefully pressure point strike is initially accomplished by focusing your energy.

The Important Pressure Points for Hemorrhage:

The loss of a small amount of blood will cause no problem for a healthy adult, but loss of one liter or more of blood is life-threatening. The first step to control bleeding is the application of direct pressure to the wound using a clean cloth. An assisting person should wear gloves to protect from blood-borne diseases. A bleeding extremity should be elevated above the level of the heart. In cases of severe, persistent bleeding, application of pressure where a local artery can be pressed against a bone slows the bleeding. The most important of these "pressure points" are the following:

  • The facial artery, which may be pressed against the lower jaw for hemorrhage around the nose, mouth, and cheek. One can feel the pulse of the facial artery in the depression about one inch anterior to the angle of the lower jaw.
  • The temporal artery, which may be pressed against the side of the skull just anterior to the ear to stop hemorrhage on the side of the face and around the ear.
  • The common carotid artery in the neck, which may be pressed back against the spinal column for bleeding in the neck and the head. Avoid prolonged compression, which can result in lack of oxygen to the brain.
  • The subclavian artery, which may be pressed against the first rib by a downward push with the thumb to stop bleeding from the shoulder or arm.
  • The brachial artery, which may be pressed against the arm bone by a push inward along the natural groove between the two large muscles of the arm. Hand, wrist, and forearm hemorrhage will be stopped by this pressing.
  • The femoral artery, which may be pressed to avoid serious hemorrhage of the lower extremity.

It is important not to leave the pressure on too long, as this may cause damage to tissues, including nerves supplied by arteries past the pressure point.
Um, another good question. Well there are a lot of them so it depends on the person you are striking and how precisely you hit their pressure point. For example there is one called ''stomach point nine'' you have to hit this point with your finger with over 20 pounds of force to activate it properly.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the puckered opening between the legs called?

That is called the anus, the opening where fecal matter exits the body. The majority of animals have that or something similar.

Birds and at least one mammal have a cloaca instead, and that is an opening for urination, defecation, mating, and laying eggs.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is a group of organs that work together called?

Two or more organs work together to form an organ system. Various types of organ systems include the skeletal system, the circulatory system, the muscular system, the digestive system, the endocrine system, and the respiratory system.

Functions of digestive system are procuring , mastication ,digestion and absorbing the food that we eat. What we can't digest is eliminated as waste. The organs in the digestive system include oral cavity , pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.

The Human Organ Systems are: (in brief)

Integumentary System: Skin. Largest organ system. Protects, regulates body temperature, holds water, excretes waste, has sensory receptors, and synthesizes biochemicals.

Skeletal System: Bones. Attach to muscles, protects, structure, produces blood, store salts, and houses blood vessels/nerves.

Muscular System: Muscles. Movement, structure, heat, controls heart. 3 Types: Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.

Nervous System: Controlled in the brain, sensors throughout the entire body. Provides feelings, thoughts, movement, consciousness. Afferent and efferent fibers.

Endocrine System: Secretes hormones.

Cardiovascular System: The heart. Transports blood and oxygen around the body. Excreting wastes.

Lymphatic System: Takes excess fluids, transports fluid, absorb fats, attacks foreign cells/cancer/toxins.

Respiratory System: Lungs, nasal/oral cavities. Supplies oxygen to the body.

Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. Removes wastes from body, maintains water concentration.

Reproductive System: Males- penis, testes, and sperm. Female: vagina, ovaries, eggs, breasts.

Levels of Organization (smallest to largest):

Atoms: smallest form.

Molecules: bonded atoms.

Macromolecules: completely bonded molecules.

Cell: basic structure of life.

Organelles: many cells which are specialized.

Tissue: organelles which have the same function come together.

Organs: Tissues which come together to form specialized functions.

Organ System: A group of organs working together.

Organism: A full being made up of many organ systems.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Which body parts have 7 letters?

humerus, patella, scapula, omentum, stomach, urethra (male reproductive), fimbria (female reproductive) i think there is more this is just some

Harry Potter
Religion & Spirituality
Philosophy and Philosophers
Human Anatomy and Physiology

Why do we die and not just live forever?

God, the creator, has designed it such that we live and we die. There is a purpose, because every time we are born as a human being, we are supposed to be liberated from death and realize the Truth about ourselves and God. Therefore, this world has been designed for us to act and then to live as per our Karma or the Law of Action and Reaction. So, for this, the body must die, such is the design. And then we come back in a new birth, in a new life. Further, if one had to just live forever, then this whole universe would have no meaning. This universe has a meaning; it is for us to realize God.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Does blood carry starch around the body?

No, but glucose is carried by the blood after digestion and there's no starch found in blood usually.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

How hard is it to get a rock hard six pack on a girl?

There can be a lot of varying factors when it comes to muscle building from family genetics. Genetically my family has always had a low body fat percentage (around 6-8%) so I almost naturally have a six pack, but some families have a high natural body fat percentage, that doesn't mean they cant have a six pack it just means they will have to work a little bit harder to get it. Girls can have a harder time because they don't have high testosterone like men do and that can be a factor. Diet also plays an important roll, If you eating a lot of calories though out the day you better burn them off. Cadio is one of the most important things to achieving a six pack, it keeps your fat percentage down and makes your leg and core muscles more toned (which is what six pack really is). Also it is important to keep a work out routine and stick to it. Over all it can be challenging but all it really requires is persistence.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the medical term meaning the skin between your thumb and index finger?

The area between the thumb and index finger (digitus secundus manus, pointer finger, or forefinger), is called the thenar space. The skin is called webbing.

In other sources it is called thumb webbing. The muscles at the base of the thumb form the thenar eminence.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Is the humerus distal to the scapula?

Since the humerus is farther down the arm than the scapula, it is considered distal.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Which gland secretes epinephrine and aldosterone?

Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland - more specifically, in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal gland is located right above your kidneys. It's normally depicted in most images by a yellow triangular shaped object that sits atop both the left and right kidneys. Epinephrine or adrenaline is secreted by adrenal medula.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What side is your appendix on and where is it located?

Your appendix is located in right iliac region. That is on the right and lower side of your abdomen.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is a half human half robot called?

This is what we call a cybernetic organism, or commonly "cyborg" for short.
Cyborgs are humans who are also partially robots.

In science fiction, humans who suffered severe injuries could be "repaired" with robotic spares.

In real-life, it is actually a viable and possible resolution for humans who are missing limbs, organs and other parts.
The pacemaker for example could technically be cyborg-ish.
In the future it might be possible to replace broken human body parts with robotic equivalents, made easier by the invention of 3D printing.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the first color to register in the human brain?

the first color a baby can see is red but some may be born with the capability to see other colors too =D

And Maybe white for pure.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

How many inches is the average arm span?

Arm span comletly depends on how tall you are. if you outstretch your arms and measure from one index finger to another it should be how tall you are vertically.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the name given to liver cells?

Hepatocytes. "Hepato" refers to anything related to the liver.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Is HF dangerous for human?

If you mean hydrogen fluoride, that depends on how much you're exposed to at once. The first rule of toxicology is that the dose makes the poison. That being said, the lethal dose at which 50% of test animals die of HF exposure is about 1.3 grams per kilogram of body weight in rats when consumed orally. HF is generally classified as "very toxic" and "corrosive", and is considered an extreme occupational hazard for anyone who works with it.

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What can cause a swollen uvula?

It will swell due to local trauma, inflammation and allergic reaction to food
It could be you are sick. Or it could be that you are dehydrated. If you sleep with your mouth open and snore you can irritate your uvula. A list of other things which irritate your uvula would be drinking, smoking, dehydration. The best cure is ice-cream and lots of beverages. The swelling should go down in 8 to 12 hours. If it does not you should seek medical help.

chronic allergic attacks like rhinitis will enlarge the uvula, which can touch the back part of the tongue causing a gagging reflex
It means something is producing toxins that are affecting the uvula. I suggest you go see a doctor right away, because it could be a virus or a bacterial infection.


Try to gargle (NOT SWALLOW!) bicarbonate of soda; one spoonful dislve in water.

Good Luck! :D
This can happen with tonsillitis or strep throat, indicates an infectious or inflammatory process has affected this tissue.
You could have a yeast infection. go see you gynecologist.
This morning I woke up with a swollen uvula. I thought it was partially detached. I went to the emergency room and discovered it was either a bacterial or viral infection (possibly related to strep). I was given a prescription for penicillin.

Human Anatomy and Physiology


The ear is divided into three regions: the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.

When sound waves enter the ear canal, they cause the eardrum to vibrate. The vibration moves the three bones in the middle ear, called the ossicles. The ossicles are also known as the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes). These tiny bones transfer and amplify sound waves to the oval window, which is located behind the stirrup.

When the oval window vibrates, it moves fluid across a membrane inside the cochlea. The fluid causes the membrane to move. Specialized hair cells translate this movement into nerve impulses, which are sent to the brain through the vestibulocochlear nerve. The brain interprets the impulses as sound.

Reviewed By

Review Date: 10/05/2008

Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

Human Anatomy and Physiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is a cell with a large nucleus?

White blood cells possess a large nucleus as compared to other cells .

Human Anatomy and Physiology
Body Temperature

Is body temperature 35 degrees celsius good?

You need to see your doctor if your temperature is consistently 35 C. Are you experiencing any weight gain, mental sluggishness, constipation, depression, lack of energy? If so, you may want to have a complete check of your thyroid function... The normal temperature is 37 C or 98.6 F. If it is not your thyroid, it could be something need a diagnostician you trust.


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