Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human physiology is the study of the human body relevant to the functions of the organs and systems. It provides a biological baseline for the five senses including the different systems, so that the body can operate normally.

Asked in Health, Conditions and Diseases, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Sinus Infections

What causes bumps on the back of your tongue?

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The bumps on the back of your tongue would be called your taste buds. The vallate papillae are a v-shaped row of larger taste buds at the back of your tongue. Many people don't notice these until they have a concern about oral infection and take a good look in their throat, not realizing that these prominent bumps have always been there. Take a look at the related link to see if these vallate papillae are what you're concerned about. And, whatever you're seeing, make an appointment with your health care provider for screening if you have reason to be concerned about oral infections. The normal tongue has numerous taste buds which are necessary for appreciation of taste. Those at the back are relatively larger and form prominences. These bumps are caused by underlying taste buds. how do you know for sure that they are inflammed taste buds? Couldn't it be warts on the back of the tongue? no, you could have inflammed taste buds--see a doctor for diagnosis good luck If you are talking about the big ones in a line on the back of your tongue They belong there. They are part of you taste buds, leave them alone It's possible but unlikely. Why are you chewing marijuana? Oh, you smoked it? Perhaps smoking is irritating your toungue. If it happens again, quit smoking. Pot can cause all sorts of problems, the irritation from the smoke could cause this sort of symptom. It is however, important to know that your tongue has natural bumps in the back which are larger than the bumps in the front, even though they are in fact taste buds. If you were smoking with other people you could have caught something from them... maybe strep or mono who knows... if you're worried about it go to the doctor 1 you don't necesarily have to tell him you smoked and 2 he will have to keep it confidential if you do. There is a condition called Benign Migratory Glossitis that can cause reddish bumps. Usually harmless, if it lasts for more than 10 days or so, see your doctor or dentist. Those Bumps on your tongue are called taste buds. Red bumps on the back of the tongue can be numerous things. Tastebuds tend to get larger towards the back of the tongue so this may be the case. I've had that happen to me when I ate some really hot food. If you've had penicillin lately and have red blotches on your abdomen that would appear to be an allergic reaction causing the red bumps. Sometimes doctors will prescribe a Tetracycline mouth rinse. Tetracycline is an antibiotic which would indicate the bumps are caused by bacteria. So this would be useless if you have swollen or aggravated taste buds. The best thing to do is to go see a doctor who can actually see the bumps and run tests. if you have big red bumps on the back of your tongue its an allergic reaction Sores on the tongue I believe these red bumps on the back of your tongue could possibly be either canker sores or, if you are sick with the flu, signs that you may have strep throat. Also if you recently burned yourself while drinking something too hot for your tastebuds it could have caused this. Explanations from other WikiAnswers Contributors: They could be taste buds Circumvallate papillae would be the proper name. In Chinese Medicine, red bumps on the back of the tongue may mean Kidney issues. If the bumps are big and elevated, that may be excess stress (Kidney Yang excess), which can affect sleep, mood (anxiety), and immune system. If you don't have pain or visible infection, Western Medicine may call this "normal". It's possible. See the related questions link.
Asked in Growth Rates, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Skeletal System

Why do babies have more bones than adults?

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Over the course of childhood and adolescence, many bones in the skull and pelvis fuse together. These are the largest and widest parts of a baby's body, having them composed of several loosely connected bones permits them to flex more during birth, making the process easier on both mother and baby. In adults it is more important for these same bones to be hard and strong, so by then they are mostly fused into a small number of larger bones. It depends on how you define "bone". In absolute terms, we are born with the same number of articulated skeletal members as we have throughout our lives; however, at birth some of these "bones" have only begun to ossify, such that they wouldn't show up on an X-ray. To ossify is to "turn to bone." Anatomically, this refers to depositing calcium in the cartilage to make it harder. Since X- rays show only calcified bone, uncalcified cartilage won't show up, even though that part of the skeleton is there and fully functional. So, if you restrict "bone" to mean "only those calcified bits of the skeleton that show up on X- rays," then newborns have fewer bones. If, on the other hand, you refer to a each skeletal member as a "bone," then newborns and adults have the same numbers. Because as you grow older some of your bones grow together to form single ones. Infants have three separate bones in their skull when they are born. The areas between these bones remain soft prior to birth, allowing the skull to remain malleable so it may pass through the birth canal more easily. These bones naturally fuse as the baby grows, becoming a single bone by adulthood.
Asked in Health, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Drinking Water

Is drinking too much water toxic?

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Yes, drinking too much water can be toxic - except it is very hard to drink too much fresh, clean water to be able to die. Normal healthy people would need to drink on the order of 20 liters per day for it to be toxic but people with some medical problems, particularly the elderly and very young, can get toxic on much lesser amounts. Also people with psychiatric disorders, most notably schizophrenia. Drinking too much water is called polydipsia. This, as well as several other processes, can cause low blood concentrations of sodium, which is known as (dilutional) hyponatremia.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

Why do men like breasts?

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Men like breasts for a variety of reasons, both subconscious and conscious. They are aesthetically pleasing, they are a sign of fertility and they are just generally nice. See related links for more info. Answer It is part of the natural sex drive. Most (not all) guys are drawn to what represents a sexually healthy female. It is a hard wired as part of the instinctual human need to reproduce. Answer: It probably has something to do with a subconscious love that comes from them being a food source for some babies. Answer: Guys are visually stimulated and since the breast are often thought of as a sexual item it stimulates guys. Answer: In our society they are slightly forbidden so that makes them exciting. They simply look great on a girl. Answer: Simply because they're part of what makes up attraction towards a girl. Looking at them is just enjoyable for most men. Touching them is connected to enjoyment in several different ways. There may be an instinct to touch things that look nice or, in case of stroking and caressing them, finding pleasure in the intimacy and in giving pleasure to the girl. The main reason is that if you have big breast some guys cannot stop looking at them right? Well the reason is that they get turned on easily from looking at them because they know if they get a chance to have sex with you they will want to do more than just stare. Answer: Some people think it has to do with being breast fed as infants, they find them comforting as it reminds them of their mother's nursing. However, this doesn't exactly hold up since not all infants are breastfed. It's probably more instinct than anything. Some say it is mostly aesthetic appeal. Just like girls tend to prefer their men with some muscular definition because it is more interesting, men tend to prefer women with breasts because it is more interesting. Personally, I think that it's more because men don't have breasts. Since they lack them, they find them more interesting. There may also be a latent anthropological factor in that breasts may be an indicator of a woman's ability to provide for a newborn baby. Answer: The reason men like to look at and touch women's breasts is very simple, and is to do with our survival instincts. Breasts are a secondary sexual characteristic of human females: that is, they aren't essential to reproduction but they play a part in distinguishing between the appearance of the sexes, and so are important in attracting a mate. Men's extra height, heavier build, beards and body hair play a similar role. Animals look for signs that a potential mate will breed successfully: in women, breasts and wider hips are features which indicate a woman is ready and equipped for childbearing. Naturally-produced scents also signal to both sexes that the potential partner is healthy and ready for breeding. This isn't some ancient precursor to modern sexual attraction: it is sexual attraction; it has never changed. There's no point, as far as any species is concerned, in taking a mate who cannot reproduce or doesn't appear likely to live long enough to raise young, so all animals - not just humans - as they mature, develop ways to indicate they are a good investment in the future of the species. As cultures become more sophisticated - and this goes back to the earliest days of mankind - people devise ways to enhance their secondary sexual characteristics; to make themselves appear more attractive, more noticeable, to a potential mate. It's that simple. It is because they represent sex. A few of guy's have said... 1. Taste good. 2. Fun to Squeeze. 3. They bounce when girls run. 4. It make them think about sex 5. Guys instinct They might not be the only reasons. Breasts are a part of what makes up a guy's attraction towards a girl. Looking at them is just enjoyable for most men. Touching them is connected to enjoyment in several different ways. Those can be for example simply calming the urge to touch things that look nice or, in case of stroking and caressing them, finding pleasure in the intimacy and in giving pleasure to the girl. Answer - Subconscious jealousy that they don't have it. - Genetic program in the man's mind to allow for reproduction. - It is awesome to them. You get a sexual feeling on how they look and they sometimes like to drink milk. Men have their fetishes just like everyone else, and some men like boobs. Because they compliment the beauty of the female being...or is it because they are just awesome ( they look good and feel even better ).
Asked in Martial Arts, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Massage Therapy

What are the pressure points on the body?

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The American Heart Association has distinguished 11 known pressure points on either side of the human body. In diagnosing Fibromyalgia, doctors check eighteen specific points on the body, if the patient has eleven of the eighteen causing them pain, then they are diagnosed as having fibromyalgia. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has defined hundreds of points on the body, though less than 100 are used in regular therapy. There are also what are called endangerment points that are in areas that have nerves and blood vessels. These areas require special training in order to use them therapeutically or as a form of self defense. There is no way to know how many pressure points are in the body. Pressure points differ from each person. A muscular person would be more prone to pressure points than an obese person, and just striking or holding a pressure point might not be enough. Self-defense Answer A pressure point can typically be found at any space between bones. Pressure Points: When a person is severely cut and begins to bleed, it is time for quick action. First air for severe bleeding involves applying pressure over the wound. Sometimes it is possible to press the artery above the wound against the bone behind it, and stop the bleeding. This place is called a pressure point. A pressure point is also an excellent location to take a person's pulse. Understanding Pressure Point Strikes: Striking to a hyel does not necessarily immediately knock a person out or cause a body part to become instantly numb, as has been propagated by many martial arts charlatans. Self-defense may be understood by the analogy of a body part that has fallen asleep, when proper circulation has been cut off from it. When applying forced pressure to specific hyel, your goal is not to magically tender your opponent lifeless. What you are planning to achieve is both short term and long term interruption of your attacker's energy. A listening carefully pressure point strike is initially accomplished by focusing your energy. The Important Pressure Points for Hemorrhage: The loss of a small amount of blood will cause no problem for a healthy adult, but loss of one liter or more of blood is life-threatening. The first step to control bleeding is the application of direct pressure to the wound using a clean cloth. An assisting person should wear gloves to protect from blood-borne diseases. A bleeding extremity should be elevated above the level of the heart. In cases of severe, persistent bleeding, application of pressure where a local artery can be pressed against a bone slows the bleeding. The most important of these "pressure points" are the following: The facial artery, which may be pressed against the lower jaw for hemorrhage around the nose, mouth, and cheek. One can feel the pulse of the facial artery in the depression about one inch anterior to the angle of the lower jaw. The temporal artery, which may be pressed against the side of the skull just anterior to the ear to stop hemorrhage on the side of the face and around the ear. The common carotid artery in the neck, which may be pressed back against the spinal column for bleeding in the neck and the head. Avoid prolonged compression, which can result in lack of oxygen to the brain. The subclavian artery, which may be pressed against the first rib by a downward push with the thumb to stop bleeding from the shoulder or arm. The brachial artery, which may be pressed against the arm bone by a push inward along the natural groove between the two large muscles of the arm. Hand, wrist, and forearm hemorrhage will be stopped by this pressing. The femoral artery, which may be pressed to avoid serious hemorrhage of the lower extremity. It is important not to leave the pressure on too long, as this may cause damage to tissues, including nerves supplied by arteries past the pressure point. Um, another good question. Well there are a lot of them so it depends on the person you are striking and how precisely you hit their pressure point. For example there is one called ''stomach point nine'' you have to hit this point with your finger with over 20 pounds of force to activate it properly.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Intestines

What is the puckered opening between the legs called?

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That is called the anus, the opening where fecal matter exits the body. The majority of animals have that or something similar. Birds and at least one mammal have a cloaca instead, and that is an opening for urination, defecation, mating, and laying eggs.
Asked in Microbiology, Human Anatomy and Physiology

What are the levels of organization in a human body starting with the smallest unit?

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The levels of body organization in an animal, from smallest to largest unit, are as follows: Some schemes start with the atom, which combines to make molecules/elements/chemicals, which combine to form organelles. Other schemes don't count these levels. In other schemes, the cell is the first level of organization, containing the organelles, proteins and DNA needed on the microscopic level. An example is an epithelial cell. The cell is the smallest functional and structural unit of all living organisms. These cells join together, collectively, to make up tissues, such as the endothelial tissues lining the circulatory system. Tissues are formed by joining cells that have similar function or structure. The tissues come together to make up an organ, which performs more specialized functions for the body. An example is the heart, which consists of muscle, cartilage, and epithelial tissue. The heart's function is pumping blood through the body. The organs combine together to make up organ systems that perform a specific function. An example is the digestive system, which performs an end-to-end process for the body (in this case, taking in raw food and breaking it down to its chemical components for use, and excreting the excess as waste).
Asked in Health, Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is a group of organs that work together called?

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Two or more organs work together to form an organ system. Various types of organ systems include the skeletal system, the circulatory system, the muscular system, the digestive system, the endocrine system, and the respiratory system. Functions of digestive system are procuring , mastication ,digestion and absorbing the food that we eat. What we can't digest is eliminated as waste. The organs in the digestive system include oral cavity , pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. The Human Organ Systems are: (in brief) Integumentary System: Skin. Largest organ system. Protects, regulates body temperature, holds water, excretes waste, has sensory receptors, and synthesizes biochemicals. Skeletal System: Bones. Attach to muscles, protects, structure, produces blood, store salts, and houses blood vessels/nerves. Muscular System: Muscles. Movement, structure, heat, controls heart. 3 Types: Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Nervous System: Controlled in the brain, sensors throughout the entire body. Provides feelings, thoughts, movement, consciousness. Afferent and efferent fibers. Endocrine System: Secretes hormones. Cardiovascular System: The heart. Transports blood and oxygen around the body. Excreting wastes. Lymphatic System: Takes excess fluids, transports fluid, absorb fats, attacks foreign cells/cancer/toxins. Respiratory System: Lungs, nasal/oral cavities. Supplies oxygen to the body. Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra. Removes wastes from body, maintains water concentration. Reproductive System: Males- penis, testes, and sperm. Female: vagina, ovaries, eggs, breasts. Levels of Organization (smallest to largest): Atoms: smallest form. Molecules: bonded atoms. Macromolecules: completely bonded molecules. Cell: basic structure of life. Organelles: many cells which are specialized. Tissue: organelles which have the same function come together. Organs: Tissues which come together to form specialized functions. Organ System: A group of organs working together. Organism: A full being made up of many organ systems.
Asked in Health, Biology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Blood

Does blood carry starch around the body?

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No, but glucose is carried by the blood after digestion and there's no starch found in blood usually.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

How hard is it to get a rock hard six pack on a girl?

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There can be a lot of varying factors when it comes to muscle building from family genetics. Genetically my family has always had a low body fat percentage (around 6-8%) so I almost naturally have a six pack, but some families have a high natural body fat percentage, that doesn't mean they cant have a six pack it just means they will have to work a little bit harder to get it. Girls can have a harder time because they don't have high testosterone like men do and that can be a factor. Diet also plays an important roll, If you eating a lot of calories though out the day you better burn them off. Cadio is one of the most important things to achieving a six pack, it keeps your fat percentage down and makes your leg and core muscles more toned (which is what six pack really is). Also it is important to keep a work out routine and stick to it. Over all it can be challenging but all it really requires is persistence.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the medical term meaning the skin between your thumb and index finger?

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The area between the thumb and index finger (digitus secundus manus, pointer finger, or forefinger), is called the thenar space. The skin is called webbing. In other sources it is called thumb webbing. The muscles at the base of the thumb form the thenar eminence.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

Is the humerus distal to the scapula?

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Since the humerus is farther down the arm than the scapula, it is considered distal.
Asked in Harry Potter, Religion & Spirituality, Philosophy and Philosophers, Human Anatomy and Physiology

Why do we die and not just live forever?

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Please note: None of these answers are written by Kunth. He wrote one. Someone edited it beyond recognition. Kunth then removed his answer (the 2nd ANSWER) altogether. 1st ANSWER Many religions believe that we do, indeed, live forever. That is to say, our body dies, but a part of us, known as our soul, continues living. According to some religions, our soul would continue living in a different world. 2nd ANSWER (This answer was written by Kunth. However, it was 'edited' by someone else and left unintelligible. The paragraph structure had also been removed. So I, Kunth, have removed it.) 3rd ANSWER (by Caroljf; copied from the Jehovah Witness website -- JW.Org): WHY HUMANS DIE 9 Why, then, do humans die? To find the answer, we must consider what happened when there was only one man and one woman on earth. The Bible explains: "Jehovah God made to grow out of the ground every tree desirable to one's sight and good for food." (Genesis 2:9) However, there was one restriction. Jehovah told Adam: "From every tree of the garden you may eat to satisfaction. But as for the tree of the knowledge of good and bad you must not eat from it, for in the day you eat from it you will positively die." (Genesis 2:16, 17) This command was not difficult to obey. There were many other trees from which Adam and Eve could eat. But they now received a special opportunity to show their gratitude to the One who had given them everything, including perfect life. Their obedience would also show that they respected the authority of their heavenly Father and that they wanted his loving direction. 10 Sadly, the first human couple chose to disobey Jehovah. Speaking through a serpent, Satan asked Eve: "Is it really so that God said you must not eat from every tree of the garden?" Eve replied: "Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat. But as for eating of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, God has said, 'You must not eat from it, no, you must not touch it that you do not die.'"-Genesis 3:1-3. 11 "You positively will not die," said Satan. "God knows that in the very day of your eating from it your eyes are bound to be opened and you are bound to be like God, knowing good and bad." (Genesis 3:4, 5) Satan wanted Eve to believe that she would benefit by eating the forbidden fruit. According to him, she could decide for herself what was right and what was wrong; she could do what she wanted. Satan also charged that Jehovah had lied about the consequences of eating the fruit. Eve believed Satan. So she picked some of the fruit and ate it. She then gave some to her husband, and he too ate some of it. They did not act in ignorance. They knew that they were doing exactly what God had told them not to do. By eating the fruit, they deliberately disobeyed a simple and reasonable command. They showed contempt for their heavenly Father and his authority. Such disrespect for their loving Creator was inexcusable! 12 To illustrate: How would you feel if you raised and cared for a son or a daughter who then disobeyed you in a way that showed that he or she had no respect or love for you? That would cause you much heartache. Imagine, then, how hurt Jehovah must have felt when both Adam and Eve took a course of opposition to him. Adam came from the dust, and he returned to the dust 13 Jehovah had no reason to sustain disobedient Adam and Eve forever. They died, just as he had said they would. Adam and Eve ceased to exist. They did not pass on to the spirit realm. We know this because of what Jehovah said to Adam after confronting him with his disobedience. God said: "You [will] return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. For dust you are and to dust you will return." (Genesis 3:19) God had made Adam from the dust of the ground. (Genesis 2:7) Before that, Adam did not exist. Therefore, when Jehovah said that Adam would return to the dust, He meant that Adam would return to a state of nonexistence. Adam would be as lifeless as the dust from which he was made. 14 Adam and Eve could have been alive today, but they died because they chose to disobey God and thus sinned. The reason we die is that Adam's sinful condition as well as death was passed on to all of his descendants. (Romans 5:12) That sin is like a terrible inherited disease from which no one can escape. Its consequence, death, is a curse. Death is an enemy, not a friend. (1 Corinthians 15:26) How grateful we can be that Jehovah provided the ransom to rescue us from this dreadful enemy! Taken from JW.Org - Caroljf
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Hormones

Which gland secretes epinephrine and aldosterone?

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Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland - more specifically, in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal gland is located right above your kidneys. It's normally depicted in most images by a yellow triangular shaped object that sits atop both the left and right kidneys. Epinephrine or adrenaline is secreted by adrenal medula.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is a half human half robot called?

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This is what we call a cybernetic organism, or commonly "cyborg" for short. Cyborgs are humans who are also partially robots. In science fiction, humans who suffered severe injuries could be "repaired" with robotic spares. In real-life, it is actually a viable and possible resolution for humans who are missing limbs, organs and other parts. The pacemaker for example could technically be cyborg-ish. In the future it might be possible to replace broken human body parts with robotic equivalents, made easier by the invention of 3D printing.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the first color to register in the human brain?

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the first color a baby can see is red but some may be born with the capability to see other colors too =D And Maybe white for pure.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

How many inches is the average arm span?

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Arm span comletly depends on how tall you are. if you outstretch your arms and measure from one index finger to another it should be how tall you are vertically.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

What is the name given to liver cells?

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Hepatocytes. "Hepato" refers to anything related to the liver.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

Is HF dangerous for human?

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If you mean hydrogen fluoride, that depends on how much you're exposed to at once. The first rule of toxicology is that the dose makes the poison. That being said, the lethal dose at which 50% of test animals die of HF exposure is about 1.3 grams per kilogram of body weight in rats when consumed orally. HF is generally classified as "very toxic" and "corrosive", and is considered an extreme occupational hazard for anyone who works with it.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Body Temperature

Is body temperature 35 degrees celsius good?

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You need to see your doctor if your temperature is consistently 35 C. Are you experiencing any weight gain, mental sluggishness, constipation, depression, lack of energy? If so, you may want to have a complete check of your thyroid function... The normal temperature is 37 C or 98.6 F. If it is not your thyroid, it could be something else...you need a diagnostician you trust.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology

What can cause a swollen uvula?

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It will swell due to local trauma, inflammation and allergic reaction to food It could be you are sick. Or it could be that you are dehydrated. If you sleep with your mouth open and snore you can irritate your uvula. A list of other things which irritate your uvula would be drinking, smoking, dehydration. The best cure is ice-cream and lots of beverages. The swelling should go down in 8 to 12 hours. If it does not you should seek medical help. acid chronic allergic attacks like rhinitis will enlarge the uvula, which can touch the back part of the tongue causing a gagging reflex It means something is producing toxins that are affecting the uvula. I suggest you go see a doctor right away, because it could be a virus or a bacterial infection. *TIP* Try to gargle (NOT SWALLOW!) bicarbonate of soda; one spoonful dislve in water. Good Luck! :D This can happen with tonsillitis or strep throat, indicates an infectious or inflammatory process has affected this tissue. You could have a yeast infection. go see you gynecologist. This morning I woke up with a swollen uvula. I thought it was partially detached. I went to the emergency room and discovered it was either a bacterial or viral infection (possibly related to strep). I was given a prescription for penicillin.
Asked in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Appendicitis

What side is your appendix on and where is it located?

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Your appendix is located in right iliac region. That is on the right and lower side of your abdomen.