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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human physiology is the study of the human body relevant to the functions of the organs and systems. It provides a biological baseline for the five senses including the different systems, so that the body can operate normally.

500 Questions

Connects nerves to your body to your brain?

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All nerves in the body are connected by synapses to the ganglia in the spinal cord to where the travel back up to the brain

What is systemic communication?

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communication system are concerned with the transfer of data and information from one location to another

Why is sensory important?

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Sensory details (also known as imagery) are an important literary device. Including details that evoke sensory memories (describing the smell of cookies baking, or the feel of a scratchy wool sweater) helps readers to become more connected with and better understand the text.

What system to the ears belong to?

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The senses system

What the purpose of the systems?

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The purpose of inventory systems are to keep track of all the items being stored inside a certain area. It is important to large wholesale companies like Amazon.

What is the technical name for the brain box?

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They differ from brand to brand but the two most common are

PCM: Powertrain Control Module

ECM: Engine control module

What stops joints moving?

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Any joint may be motionless at one point in time.

What system is damaged and brings death very quickly so that the consequences of exposure to other systems do not have time to express themselves?

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A majority of the injuries to guess containing organs is usually a tribute to which of the following?

Do secretion usually occur in the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting tubule?

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No! Secretion is like ruin and excreting is a bal movement

What is air in the abdomen?

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free air in the abdomen often a sign of a leak in the GI tract, trapping air between organs and the abdominal wall.

What is meant by pituitary gland?

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Not to be confused with Phobos (mythology).

Apollo
Apollo Belvedere, ca. 120-140 CE. God of music, poetry, plague, oracles, sun, medicine, light and knowledge Abode Mount Olympus Symbol Lyre, laurelwreath, python,raven, bow and arrows Parents Zeus and Leto Siblings ArtemisChildren Asclepius, Troilus, Aristaeus,Orpheus Roman equivalent Apollo

Ancient Greek religion
Hellenismos

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (gen.: Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic:Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greekand Roman religion, Greco-RomanNeopaganism, and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.

As the patron of Delphi(Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oraculargod-the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Amongst the god's custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses(Apollon Musegetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermescreated the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans.

In Hellenistic times, especially during the 3rd century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titangod of the sun, and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene, Titan goddess of the moon.[1]In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the 1st century, not even in the conjurations of AeneasandLatinusin AeneidXII (161-215).[2]Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 3rd century CE.

Contents[hide] Etymology

Statuette of the Apollo Lykeios type, Museum of the Ancient Agora of Athens (inv. BI 236).

The etymology of Apollo is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Απέλλων is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Απέλjων. The name is certainly cognate with the Doric month name Απέλλαιος and the Doric festival απελλαι.[3]

Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), "to destroy".[4]Plato in Cratylusconnects the name with ἀπόλυσις (apolysis), "redeem", with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), "purification", and with ἁπλοῦν (aploun), "simple",[5]in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀει-βάλλων (aeiballon), "ever-shooting". Hesychiusconnects the name Apollo with the Doric απέλλα (apella), which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds.

Following the tradition of these Ancient Greek folk etymologies, in the Doric dialect the word απέλλα originally meant wall, fence from animals and later assembly within the agora. In the Ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means stone, and some toponyms are derived from this word:Πέλλα (Pella:capital of Ancient Macedonia), Πελλήνη (Pellini-Pallini).

A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name,[6]The form Apaliunas(dx-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is attested as a god of Wilusa[7]in a treaty between Alaksandu of Wilusa and the Hittite great king Muwatalli IIca 1280 BCE.Alaksandu could be Paris-Alexanderof Ilion",[8]whose name is Greek.[9]The Hittitetestimony reflects an early form *Apeljōn, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Απειλων with Doric Απελλων.[10]A Luwianetymology suggested for Apaliunas makes Apollo "The One of Entrapment", perhaps in the sense of "Hunter".[11]

Among the proposed etymologies is the Hurrian and Hittite divinity, Aplu, who was widely invoked during the "plague years". Aplu, it is suggested, comes from the AkkadianAplu Enlil, meaning "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun.[12]

Greco-Roman epithets

Apollo, like other Greek deities, had a number of epithetsapplied to him, reflecting the variety of roles, duties, and aspects ascribed to the god. However, while Apollo has a great number of appellations in Greek myth, only a few occur in Latin literature, chief among them Phoebus ( /ˈfə/ fee-bəs; Φοίβος, Phoibos, literally "radiant"), which was very commonly used by both the Greeks and Romans in Apollo's role as the god of light.

As sun-god and god of light, Apollo was also known by the epithets Aegletes (/əˈɡltz/ ə-glee-teez; Αἰγλήτης, Aiglētēs, from αἴγλη, "light of the sun"),[13]Helius (/ˈhliə/ hee-lee-əs; Ἥλιος, Helios, literally "sun"),[14]Phanaeus (/fəˈə/ fə-nee-əs; Φαναῖος, Phanaios, literally "giving or bringing light"), and Lyceus(/lˈə/ ly-see-əs; Λύκειος, Lukeios, from Proto-Greek*λύκη, "light"). The meaning of the epithet "Lyceus" later became associated Apollo's mother Leto, who was the patron goddes of Lycia (Λυκία) and who was identified with the wolf (λύκος),[15]earning him the epithets Lycegenes (/lˈɛəz/ ly-sej-ə-neez; Λυκηγενής, Lukēgenēs, literally "born of a wolf" or "born of Lycia") and Lycoctonus (/lˈkɒktəə/ ly-kok-tə-nəs; Λυκοκτόνος, Lukoktonos, from λύκος, "wolf", and κτείνειν, "to kill"). As god of the sun, the Romans referred to Apollo as Sol(/ˈɒl/ sol; literally "sun" in Latin).

In association with his birthplace, Mount Cynthuson the island of Delos, Apollo was called Cynthius (/ˈɪθiə/ sin-thee-əs; Κύνθιος, Kunthios, literally "Cynthian"), Cynthogenes(/ɪˈθɒɨz/ sin-thoj-i-neez; Κύνθογενης, Kunthogenēs, literally "born of Cynthus"), and Delius (/ˈdliə/ dee-lee-əs; Δήλιος, Delios, literally "Delian"). As Artemis's twin, Apollo had the epithet Didymaeus (/dɪdɨˈmə/ did-i-mee-əs; Διδυμαιος, Didumaios, from δίδυμος, "twin").

Partial view of the temple of Apollo Epikurios(healer) at Bassae in southern Greece.

Apollo was worshipped as Actiacus (/ækˈt.əkə/ ak-ty-ə-kəs; Ἄκτιακός, Aktiakos, literally "Actian"), Delphinius(/dɛlˈfɪiə/ del-fin-ee-əs; Δελφίνιος, Delphinios, literally "Delphic"), and Pythius (/ˈɪθiə/ pith-ee-əs; Πύθιος, Puthios, from Πυθώ, Pūthō, the area around Delphi), after Actium(Ἄκτιον) and Delphi(Δελφοί) respectively, two of his principal places of worship.[16][17]An etiology in the Homeric hymnsassociated the epithet "Delphinius" with dolphins. He was worshipped as Acraephius (/əˈkrfiə/ ə-kree-fee-əs; Ἀκραιφιος, Akraiphios, literally "Acraephian") or Acraephiaeus (/əˌkrfiˈə/ ə-kree-fee-ee-əs; Ἀκραιφιαίος, Akraiphiaios, literally "Acraephian") in the Boeotian town ofAcraephia(Ἀκραιφία), reputedly founded by his son Acraepheus; and as Smintheus(/ˈmɪθj/ smin-thews; Σμινθεύς, Smintheus, "Sminthian"-that is, "of the town of Sminthos or Sminthe")[18]near the Troadtown of Hamaxitus. The epithet "Smintheus" has historically been confused with σμίνθος, "mouse", in association with Apollo's role as a god of disease. For this he was also known as Parnopius (/ɑrˈiə/par-noh-pee-əs; Παρνόπιος, Parnopios, from πάρνοψ, "locust") and to the Romans as Culicarius (/ˌkjuːlɨˈkæriə/ kew-li-karr-ee-əs; from Latin culicārius, "of midges").

Temple of the Delians at Delos, dedicated to Apollo (478 BC). 19th-century pen-and-wash restoration.

Temple of Apollo Smintheus at Çanakkale, Turkey.

In Apollo's role as a healer, his appellations included Acesius (/əˈʒə/ ə-see-zhəs; Ἀκέσιος, Akesios, from ἄκεσις, "healing"), Acestor(/əˈɛtər/ ə-ses-tər; Ἀκέστωρ, Akestōr, literally "healer"), Paean(/ˈə/ pee-ən; Παιάν, Paiān, from παίειν, "to touch"), and Iatrus(/ˈætrə/ eye-at-rəs; Ἰατρός, Iātros, literally "physician").[19]Acesius was the epithet of Apollo worshipped in Elis, where he had a temple in the agora.[20]The Romans referred to Apollo as Medicus (/ˈmɛdɨkə/ med-i-kəs; literally "physician" in Latin) in this respect. A templewas dedicated to Apollo Medicus at Rome, probably next to the temple of Bellona.

As a protector and founder, Apollo had the epithets Alexicacus(/əˌlɛkɨˈkkə/ ə-lek-si-kay-kəs; Ἀλεξίκακος, Alexikakos, literally "warding off evil"), Apotropaeus (/əˌɒtrəˈə/ ə-pot-rə-pee-əs; Ἀποτρόπαιος, Apotropaios, from ἀποτρέπειν, "to avert"), and Epicurius(/ˌɛɨˈkjʊriə/ ep-i-kewr-ee-əs; Ἐπικούριος, Epikourios, from ἐπικουρέειν, "to aid"),[14]and Archegetes (/ɑrˈkɛətz/ ar-kej-ə-teez; Ἀρχηγέτης, Arkhēgetēs, literally "founder"), Clarius(/ˈklæriə/ klarr-ee-əs; Κλάριος, Klārios, from Doricκλάρος, "allotted lot"), and Genetor(/ˈɛɨtər/ jen-i-tər; Γενέτωρ, Genetōr, literally "ancestor").[14]To the Romans, he was known in this capacity as Averruncus(/ˌævəˈrʌŋkə/av-ər-rung-kəs; from Latin āverruncare, "to avert"). He was also called Agyieus(/əˈ.ɨjuː/ ə-gwee-ews; Ἀγυιεύς, Aguīeus, from ἄγυια, "street") for his role in protecting roads and homes; and as Nomius (/ˈmiə/ noh-mee-əs; Νόμιος, Nomios, literally "pastoral") andNymphegetes(/ɪmˈfɛɨtz/ nim-fej-i-teez; Νυμφηγέτης, Numphēgetēs, from Νύμφη, "Nymph", and ἡγέτης, "leader") in his role as a protector of shepherds and pastoral life.

In his role as god of prophecy and truth, Apollo had the epithets Manticus (/ˈmætɨkə/ man-ti-kəs; Μαντικός, Mantikos, literally "prophetic"),Leschenorius (/ˌlɛkɨˈɔəriə/ les-ki-nohr-ee-əs; Λεσχηνόριος, Leskhēnorios, from λεσχήνωρ, "converser"), and Loxias (/ˈlɒkiə/ lok-see-əs; Λοξίας, Loxias, from λέγειν, "to say").[14]The epithet "Loxias" has historically been associated with λοξός, "ambiguous". In this respect, the Romans called him Coelispex (/ˈɛlɨɛk/ sel-i-speks; from Latin coelum, "sky", and specere, "to look at"). The epithet Iatromantis(/ˌætrəˈmætɪ/ eye-at-rə-man-tis; Ἰατρομάντις, Iātromantis, from ὶατρός, "physician", and μάντις, "prophet") refers to both his role as a god of healing and of prophecy. As god of music and arts, Apollo had the epithet Musagetes (/mjuːˈæɨtz/ mew-saj-i-teez; DoricΜουσαγέτας,Mousāgetās)[21]or Musegetes (/mjuːˈɛɨtz/ mew-sej-i-teez; Μουσηγέτης, Mousēgetēs, from Μούσα, "Muse", and ἡγέτης, "leader").

As a god of archery, Apollo was known as Aphetor (/əˈftər/ ə-fee-tər; Ἀφήτωρ, Aphētōr, from ὰφίημι, "to let loose") or Aphetorus (/əˈfɛtərə/ə-fet-ər-əs; Ἀφητόρος, Aphētoros, of the same origin), Argyrotoxus(/ˌɑrɨrəˈtɒkə/ ar-ji-rə-tok-səs; Ἀργυρότοξος, Argurotoxos, literally "with silver bow"), Hecaërgus (/ˌhɛkiˈɜrɡə/ hek-ee-ur-gəs; Ἑκάεργος, Hekaergos, literally "far-shooting"), and Hecebolus (/hɨˈɛələ/hi-seb-ə-ləs; Ἑκηβόλος, Hekēbolos, literally "far-shooting"). The Romans referred to Apollo as Articenens (/ɑrˈtɪɨəz/ ar-tiss-i-nənz; "bow-carrying"). Apollo was called Ismenius (/ɪzˈmiə/ iz-mee-nee-əs; Ἰσμηνιός, Ismēnios, literally "of Ismenus") after Ismenus, the son ofAmphion and Niobe, whom he struck with an arrow.

Celtic epithets and cult titles

Apollo was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire. In the traditionally Celtic lands he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often equated with Celtic godsof similar character.[22]

Origins

The Omphalos in the Museum of Delphi.

The cult centers of Apollo in Greece, Delphi and Delos, date from the 8th century BCE. The Delos sanctuary was primarily dedicated to Artemis, Apollo's twin sister. At Delphi, Apollo was venerated as the slayer of Pytho. For the Greeks, Apollo was all the Gods in one and through the centuries he acquired different functions which could originate from different gods. In archaic Greece he was the prophet, the oracular god who in older times was connected with "healing". In classical Greece he was the god of light and of music, but in popular religion he had a strong function to keep away evil.[31]Walter Burkert[32]discerned three components in the prehistory of Apollo worship, which he termed "a Dorian-northwest Greek component, a Cretan-Minoan component, and a Syro-Hittite component."

From his eastern-origin Apollo brought the art of inspection from "symbols and omina" ( σημεία και τέρατα : simia ke terata ), and of the observation of the omens of the days. The inspiration oracular-cult was probably introduced from Anatolia. The ritualismbelonged to Apollo from the beginning. The Greeks created the legalism, the supervision of the orders of the gods, and the demand for moderation and harmony. Apollo became the god of shining youth, the protector of music, spiritual-life, moderation and perceptible order. The improvement of the old Anatoliangod, and his elevation to an intellectual sphere, may be considered an achievement of the Greekpeople.[33]

Healer and god-protector from evil

The function of Apollo as a "healer" is connected with Paean(Παιών-Παιήων), the physician of the Gods in the Iliad, who seems to come from a more primitive religion. Paeοn is probably connected with the MyceneanPa-ja-wo, but the etymology is the only evidence. He did not have a separate cult, but he was the personification of the holy magic-song sung by the magicians that was supposed to cure disease. Later the Greeks knew the original meaning of the relevant song "paeαn" (παιάν). The magicians were also called "seer-doctors" (ιατρομάντεις), and they used an ecstatic prophetic art which was used exactly by the god Apollo at the oracles.[34]

In the Iliad, Apollo is the healer under the gods, but he is also the bringer of disease and death with his arrows, similar to the function of the terribleVedic god of disease Rudra.[35]He sends a terrible plague (λοιμός) to the Achaeans. The god who sends a disease can also prevent from it, therefore when it stops they make a purifying ceremony and offer him an "hecatomb" to ward off evil. When the oath of his priest appeases, they pray and with a song they call their own god, the beautiful Paean.[36]

Some common epithets of Apollo as a healer are "paion" (παιών:touching), "epikourios" (επικουρώ:help), "oulios" (ουλή:cured wound), and "loimios" (λοiμός:plague). In classical times, his strong function in popular religion was to keep away evil, and was therefore called "apotropaios" (αποτρέπω:to divert) and "alexikakos" (αλέξω-κακό:defend, throw away the evil).[37]In later writers, the word, usually spelled "Paean", becomes a mere epithet of Apollo in his capacity as a god of healing.[38]

Homer illustrated Paeon the god, and the song both of apotropaicthanksgiving or triumph.[citation needed] Such songs were originally addressed to Apollo, and afterwards to other gods: toDionysus, to Apollo Helios, to Apollo's son Asclepius the healer. About the 4th century BCE, the paean became merely a formula of adulation; its object was either to implore protection against disease and misfortune, or to offer thanks after such protection had been rendered. It was in this way that Apollo had become recognised as the god of music. Apollo's role as the slayer of thePython led to his association with battle and victory; hence it became the Roman custom for a paean to be sung by an army on the march and before entering into battle, when a fleet left the harbour, and also after a victory had been won.

Dorian origin

The connection with Dorians and their initiation festival apellaiis reinforced by the month Apellaios in northwest Greek calendars,[39]but it can explain only the Doric type of the name, which is connected with the Ancient Macedonian word "pella" (Pella), stone. Stones played an important part in the cult of the god, especially in the oracular shrine of Delphi (Omphalos).[40][41]The "Homeric hymn" represents Apollo as a Northern intruder. His arrival must have occurred during the "dark ages" that followed the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization, and his conflict withGaia (Mother Earth) was represented by the legend of his slaying her daughter the serpent Python.[42]

The earth deity had power over the ghostly world, and it is believed that she was the deity behind the oracle.[43]The older tales mentioned two dragons who were perhaps intentionally conflated. A female dragon named Delphyne(δελφύς:womb), who is obviously connected with Delphi and Apollo Delphinios, and a male serpent Typhon(τύφειν:smoke), the adversary of Zeus in theTitanomachy, who the narrators confused with Python.[44][45]Python was the good daemon (αγαθός δαίμων) of the temple as it appears in Minoanreligion,[46]but she was represented as a dragon, as often happens in Northern European folklore as well as in the East.[47]

Apollo and his sister Artemis can bring death with their arrows. The conception that diseases and death come from invisible shots sent by supernatural beings, or magicians is common inGermanic and Norsemythology.[35]In Greek mythology Artemis was the leader ( ηγεμόνη : hegemone) of the nymphs, who had similar functions with the NordicElves.[48]The "elf-shot" originally indicated disease or death attributed to the elves, but it was later attested denoting arrow-heads which were used by witches to harm people, and also for healing rituals.[49]

The Vedic Rudra has some similar functions with Apollo. The terrible god is called "The Archer", and the bow is also an attribute of Shiva.[50]Rudra could bring diseases with his arrows, but he was able to free people of them, and his alternative Shiba, is a healer physician god.[51]However the Indo-Europeancomponent of Apollo, does not explain his strong relation with omens, exorcisms, and with the oracular cult.

Minoan origin

An ornamented golden Minoanlabrys.

It seems an oracular cult existed in Delphi from the Mycenaeanages.[52]In historical times, the priests of Delphi were called Labryaden, "the double-axe men", which indicates Minoanorigin. The double-axe (λάβρυς:labrys) was the holy symbol of the Cretanlabyrinth.[53][54]The Homeric hymn adds that Apollo appeared as a dolphin and carried Cretan priests to Delphi, where they evidently transferred their religious practices. Apollo Delphinios was a sea-god especially worshiped in Crete and in the islands, and his name indicates his connection with Delphi[55]and the holy serpent Delphyne(womb). Apollo's sister Artemis, who was the Greek goddess of hunting, is identified with Britomartis(Diktynna), the Minoan"Mistress of the animals". In her earliest depictions she is accompanied by the "Mister of the animals", a male god of hunting who had the bow as his attribute. We don't know his original name, but it seems that he was absorbed by the more powerful Apollo, who stood by the "Mistress of the animals", becoming her brother.[48]

The old oracles in Delphi seem to be connected with a local tradition of the priesthood, and there is not clear evidence that a kind of inspiration-prophecy existed in the temple. This led some scholars to the conclusion that Pythia carried on the rituals in a consistent procedure through many centuries, according to the local tradition. In that regard, the mythical seeress Sibyl of Anatolianorigin, with her ecstatic art, looks unrelated to the oracle itself.[56]However, the Greek tradition is referring to the existence of vapours and chewing of laurel-leaves, which seem to be confirmed by recent studies.[57]

Platodescribes the priestesses of Delphi and Dodona as frenzied women, obsessed by "mania" (μανία:frenzy), a Greek word connected with "mantis" (μάντις:prophet). Frenzied women like Sibyls from whose lips the god speaks are recorded in the Near East as Mari in the second millennium BC.[58]Although Crete had contacts with Mari from 2000 BC,[59]there is no evidence that the ecstatic prophetic art existed during the Minoan and Mycenean ages. It is more probable that this art was introduced later from Anatolia and regenerated an existing oracular cult that was local to Delphi and dormant in several areas of Greece.[60]

Anatolian origin

Illustration of a coin of Apollo Agyieus fromAmbracia.

A non-Greek origin of Apollo has long been assumed in scholarship.[3]The name of Apollo's mother Leto has Lydianorigin, and she was worshipped on the coasts ofAsia Minor. The inspiration oracular cult was probably introduced into Greece from Anatolia, which is the origin of Sibyl, and where existed some of the oldest oracular shrines. Omens, symbols, purifications, and exorcisms appear in old Assyro-Babyloniantexts, and these rituals were spread into the empire of the Hittites. In a Hittite text is mentioned that the king invited a Babylonian priestess for a certain "purification".[33]

A similar story is mentioned by Plutarch. He writes that the Cretan- seerEpimenides, purified Athens after the pollution brought by the Alcmeonidae, and that the seer's expertise in sacrificesand reform of funeral practices were of great help to Solon in his reform of the Athenian state.[61]The story indicates that Epimenides was probably heir to the shamanic religions of Asia, and proves together with the Homeric hymn, that Crete had a resisting religion up to the historical times. It seems that these rituals were dormant in Greece, and they were reinforced when the Greeks migrated to Anatolia.

Homerpictures Apollo on the side of the Trojans, fighting against the Achaeans, during the Trojan War. He is pictured as a terrible god, less trusted by the Greeks than other gods. The god seems to be related to Appaliunas, a tutelary god of Wilusa(Troy) in Asia Minor, but the word is not complete.[62]The stones found in front of the gates of Homeric Troy were the symbols of Apollo. The Greeks gave to him the name αγυιεύς agyieusas the protector god of public places and houses who wards off evil, and his symbol was a tapered stone or column.[63]However, while usually Greek festivals were celebrated at the full moon, all the feasts of Apollo were celebrated at the seventh day of the month, and the emphasis given to that day (sibutu) indicates a Babylonianorigin.[64]

The Late Bronze Age (from 1700 to 1200 BCE) Hittite and HurrianAplu was a god of plague, invoked during plague years. Here we have an apotropaicsituation, where a god originally bringing the plague was invoked to end it. Aplu, meaning the son of, was a title given to the god Nergal, who was linked to the Babyloniangod of the sun Shamash.[12]Homer interprets Apollo as a terrible god (δεινός θεός) who brings death and disease with his arrows, but who can also heal, possessing a magic art that separates him from the other Greek gods.[65]In Iliad, his priest prays to Apollo Smintheus,[66]the mouse god who retains an older agricultural function as the protector from field rats.[67][68]All these functions, including the function of the healer-god Paean, who seems to have Mycenean origin, are fused in the cult of Apollo.

Oracular cult

Columns of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, Greece.

Unusually among the Olympic deities, Apollo had two cult sites that had widespread influence: Delos and Delphi. In cult practice, Delian Apolloand Pythian Apollo (the Apollo of Delphi) were so distinct that they might both have shrines in the same locality.[69]Apollo's cult was already fully established when written sources commenced, about 650 BCE. Apollo became extremely important to the Greek world as an oracular deity in thearchaic period, and the frequency of theophoric names such as Apollodorus or Apollonios and cities named Apollonia testify to his popularity. Oracular sanctuaries to Apollo were established in other sites. In the 2nd and 3rd century CE, those at Didyma and Claruspronounced the so-called "theological oracles", in which Apollo confirms that all deities are aspects or servants of an all-encompassing, highest deity. "In the 3rd century, Apollo fell silent. Julian the Apostate (359 - 61) tried to revive the Delphic oracle, but failed."[3]

Oracular shrines

Delos lions.

Apollo had a famous oracle in Delphi, and other notable ones in Clarus and Branchidae. His oracular shrine in Abae in Phocis, where he bore thetoponymicepithet Abaeus(Ἀπόλλων Ἀβαῖος, Apollon Abaios) was important enough to be consulted by Croesus(Herodotus, 1.46). His oracular shrines include:

  • Abae in Phocis
  • Bassae in the Peloponnese
  • At Clarus, on the west coast of Asia Minor; as at Delphi a holy spring which gave off a pneuma, from which the priests drank.
  • In Corinth, the Oracle of Corinth came from the town of Tenea, from prisoners supposedly taken in the Trojan War.
  • At Khyrse, in Troad, the temple was built for ApollonSmintheus
  • In Delos, there was an oracle to the Delian Apollo, during summer. The Hieron (Sanctuary) of Apollo adjacent to the Sacred Lake, was the place where the god was said to have been born.
  • In Delphi, the Pythia became filled with the pneuma of Apollo, said to come from a spring inside the Adyton.
  • In Didyma, an oracle on the coast of Anatolia, south west of Lydian(Luwian) Sardis, in which priests from the lineage of the Branchidae received inspiration by drinking from a healing spring located in the temple. Was believed to have been founded by Branchus, son or lover of Apollo.
  • In Hierapolis Bambyce, Syria (modern Manbij), according to the treatise De Dea Syria, the sanctuary of the Syrian Goddess contained a robed and bearded image of Apollo. Divination was based on spontaneous movements of this image.[70]
  • At Patara, in Lycia, there was a seasonal winter oracle of Apollo, said to have been the place where the god went from Delos. As at Delphi the oracle at Patara was a woman.
  • In Segesta in Sicily

Oracles were also given by sons of Apollo.

  • In Oropus, north of Athens, the oracle Amphiaraus, was said to be the son of Apollo; Oropus also had a sacred spring.
  • in Labadea, 20 miles (32 km) east of Delphi, Trophonius, another son of Apollo, killed his brother and fled to the cave where he was also afterwards consulted as an oracle
MythologyBirth

Apollo (left) and Artemis. Brygos(potter signed), Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup c. 470 BC, Louvre.

When Zeus' wife Heradiscovered that Leto was pregnant and that Zeus was the father, she banned Letofrom giving birth on "terra firma". In her wanderings, Leto found the newly created floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island. She gave birth there and was accepted by the people, offering them her promise that her son would be always favourable toward the city. Afterwards, Zeus secured Delos to the bottom of the ocean. This island later became sacred to Apollo.

It is also stated that Hera kidnapped Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto from going into labor. The other gods tricked Hera into letting her go by offering her a necklace, nine yards (8 m) long, of amber. Mythographers agree that Artemiswas born first and then assisted with the birth of Apollo, or that Artemis was born one day before Apollo, on the island of Ortygia and that she helped Leto cross the sea to Delos the next day to give birth to Apollo. Apollo was born on the seventh day (ἑβδομαγενής)[71]of the month Thargelion -according to Delian tradition-or of the month Bysios-according to Delphian tradition. The seventh and twentieth, the days of the new and full moon, were ever afterwards held sacred to him.

Youth

Four days after his birth, Apollo killed the chthonicdragon Python, which lived in Delphi beside the Castalian Spring. This was the spring which emitted vapors that caused the oracle at Delphi to give her prophecies. Hera sent the serpent to hunt Leto to her death across the world. To protect his mother, Apollo begged Hephaestusfor a bow and arrows. After receiving them, Apollo cornered Python in the sacred cave at Delphi.[72]Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it, since Python was a child of Gaia.

Hera then sent the giant Tityos to kill Leto. This time Apollo was aided by his sister Artemis in protecting their mother. During the battle Zeus finally relented his aid and hurled Tityos down to Tartarus. There he was pegged to the rock floor, covering an area of 9 acres (36,000 m²), where a pair of vulturesfeasted daily on his liver.

Trojan War

Apollo shot arrows infected with the plague into the Greek encampment during the Trojan War in retribution for Agamemnon's insult to Chryses, a priest of Apollo whose daughter Chryseis had been captured. He demanded her return, and the Achaeans complied, indirectly causing the anger of Achilles, which is the theme of the Iliad.

In the Iliad, when Diomedesinjured Aeneas, Apollo rescued him. First, Aphroditetried to rescue Aeneas but Diomedes injured her as well. Aeneas was then enveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy.

Apollo aided Paris in the killing of Achilles by guiding the arrow of his bow into Achilles' heel. One interpretation of his motive is that it was in revenge for Achilles' sacrilege in murdering Troilus, the god's own son by Hecuba, on the very altar of the god's own temple.

Admetus

When Zeus struck down Apollo's son Asclepius with a lightning bolt for resurrecting Hippolytusfrom the dead (transgressing Themis by stealing Hades's subjects), Apollo in revenge killed theCyclopes, who had fashioned the bolt for Zeus.[73]Apollo would have been banished to Tartarusforever, but was instead sentenced to one year of hard labor as punishment, due to the intercession of his mother, Leto. During this time he served as shepherd for King Admetusof Pheraein Thessaly. Admetus treated Apollo well, and, in return, the god conferred great benefits on Admetus.

Apollo helped Admetus win Alcestis, the daughter of King Peliasand later convinced the Fates to let Admetus live past his time, if another took his place. But when it came time for Admetus to die, his parents, whom he had assumed would gladly die for him, refused to cooperate. Instead, Alcestis took his place, but Heraclesmanaged to "persuade" Thanatos, the god of death, to return her to the world of the living.

Artemis and Apollo Piercing Niobe's Children with their Arrows by Jacques-Louis David., Dallas Museum of Art.

Niobe

Niobe, the queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, boasted of her superiority to Leto because she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven male and seven female, while Leto had only two. Apollo killed her sons, and Artemis her daughters. Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions of the myth, a number of the Niobids were spared (Chloris, usually). Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, either killed himself or was killed by Apollo after swearing revenge.

A devastated Niobe fled to Mount Sipylosin Asia Minorand turned into stone as she wept. Her tears formed the river Achelous. Zeus had turned all the people of Thebes to stone and so no one buried the Niobids until the ninth day after their death, when the gods themselves entombed them.

Consorts and children

Love affairs ascribed to Apollo are a late development in Greek mythology.[74]Their vivid anecdotal qualities have made favorites some of them of painters since the Renaissance, so that they stand out more prominently in the modern imagination.

Female loversMain article: Apollo and Daphne

Apollo and Daphne by Bernini in the Galleria Borghese.

Daphne was a nymph, daughter of the river godPeneus, who had scorned Apollo. The myth explains the connection of Apollo with δάφνη (daphnē), the laurel whose leaves his priestess employed at Delphi.[75]In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Phoebus Apollo chaffs Cupid for toying with a weapon more suited to a man, whereupon Cupid wounds him with a golden dart; simultaneously, however, Cupid shoots a leaden arrow into Daphne, causing her to be repulsed by Apollo. Following a spirited chase by Apollo, Daphne prays to her father, Peneus, for help, and he changes her into the laurel tree, sacred to Apollo.

Artemis Daphnaia, who had her temple among the Lacedemonians, at a place called Hypsoi[76]in Antiquity, on the slopes of Mount Cnacadion near the Spartan frontier,[77]had her own sacred laurel trees.[78]At Eretriathe identity of an excavated 7th and 6th century temple to Apollo Daphnephoros, "Apollo, laurel-bearer", or "carrying off Daphne", a "place where the citizens are to take the oath", is identified in inscriptions.[79]

Leucothea was daughter of Orchamus and sister of Clytia. She fell in love with Apollo who disguised himself as Leucothea's mother to gain entrance to her chambers. Clytia, jealous of her sister because she wanted Apollo for herself, told Orchamus the truth, betraying her sister's trust and confidence in her. Enraged, Orchamus ordered Leucothea to be buried alive. Apollo refused to forgive Clytia for betraying his beloved, and a grieving Clytia wilted and slowly died. Apollo changed her into an incense plant, either heliotrope or sunflower, which follows the sun every day.

Marpessa was kidnapped by Idas but was loved by Apollo as well. Zeus made her choose between them, and she chose Idas on the grounds that Apollo, being immortal, would tire of her when she grew old.

Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo loved. She fled from him and dove into the spring at Delphi, at the base of Mt. Parnassos, which was then named after her. Water from this spring was sacred; it was used to clean the Delphian temples and inspire the priestesses. In the last oracle is mentioned that the "water which could speak", has been lost for ever.

By Cyrene, Apollo had a son named Aristaeus, who became the patron god of cattle, fruit trees, hunting, husbandry and bee-keeping. He was also a culture-heroand taught humanity dairy skills, the use of nets and traps in hunting, and how to cultivate olives.

Hecuba, was the wife of King Priam of Troy, and Apollo had a son with her named Troilus. An oracleprophesied that Troy would not be defeated as long as Troilus reached the age of twenty alive. He was ambushed and killed by Achilleus.

Cassandra, was daughter of Hecuba and Priam, and Troilus' half-sister. Apollo fell in love with Cassandra and promised her the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but she rejected him afterwards. Enraged, Apollo indeed gifted her with the ability to know the future, with a curse that she could only see the future tragedies and that no one would ever believe her.

Coronis, was daughter of Phlegyas, King of the Lapiths. Pregnant with Asclepius, Coronis fell in love with Ischys, son of Elatus. A crow informed Apollo of the affair. When first informed he disbelieved the crow and turned all crows black (where they were previously white) as a punishment for spreading untruths. When he found out the truth he sent his sister, Artemis, to kill Coronis (in other stories, Apollo himself had killed Coronis). As a result he also made the crow sacred and gave them the task of announcing important deaths. Apollo rescued the baby and gave it to thecentaurChiron to raise. Phlegyas was irate after the death of his daughter and burned the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo then killed him for what he did.

In Euripides' play Ion, Apollo fathered Ion by Creusa, wife of Xuthus. Creusa left Ion to die in the wild, but Apollo asked Hermes to save the child and bring him to the oracle at Delphi, where he was raised by a priestess.

Apollo and Hyacinthus
Jacopo Caraglio; 16th-century Italian engraving.

Acantha, was the spirit of the acanthustree, and Apollo had one of his other liaisons with her. Upon her death, Apollo transformed her into a sun-loving herb.

According to the Biblioteca, the "library" of mythology mis-attributed to Apollodorus, he fathered the Corybantes on the Muse Thalia.[80]

Consorts and children: extended list
  1. Acacallis
    1. Amphithemis (Garamas)[81]
    2. Naxos, eponym of the island Naxos[82]
    3. Phylacides
    4. Phylander[83]
  2. Acantha
  3. Aethusa
    1. Eleuther
  4. Aganippe
    1. Chios[84]
  5. Alciope[85]
    1. Linus (possibly)
  6. Amphissa / Isse, daughter of Macareus
  7. Anchiale / Acacallis
    1. Oaxes[86]
  8. Areia, daughter of Cleochus / Acacallis / Deione
    1. Miletus
  9. Astycome, nymph
    1. Eumolpus (possibly)[87]
  10. Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus
    1. Asclepius(possibly)
    2. Eriopis
  11. Babylo
    1. Arabus[88]
  12. Bolina
  13. Calliope, Muse
    1. Orpheus(possibly)
    2. Linus(possibly)
    3. Ialemus
  14. Cassandra
  15. Castalia
  16. Celaeno, daughter of Hyamus / Melaina / Thyia
    1. Delphus
  17. Chione / Philonis / Leuconoe
    1. Philammon
  18. Chrysorthe
    1. Coronus
  19. Chrysothemis
    1. Parthenos
  20. Coronis
    1. Asclepius
  21. Coryceia
    1. Lycorus(Lycoreus)
  22. Creusa
    1. Ion
  23. Cyrene
    1. Aristaeus
    2. Idmon(possibly)
    3. Autuchus[89]
  24. Danais, Cretan nymph
    1. The Curetes[90]
  25. Daphne
  26. Dia, daughter of Lycaon
    1. Dryops
  27. Dryope
    1. Amphissus
  28. Euboea (daughter of Macareus of Locris)
    1. Agreus
  29. Evadne, daughter of Poseidon
    1. Iamus
  30. Gryne
  31. Hecate
    1. Scylla(possibly)[91]
  32. Hecuba
    1. Troilus
    2. Hector(possibly)[92]
  33. Hestia (wooed her unsuccessfully)
  34. Hypermnestra, wife of Oicles
    1. Amphiaraus(possibly)
  35. Hypsipyle[93]
  36. Hyria (Thyria)
    1. Cycnus
  37. Lycia, nymph or daughter of Xanthus
    1. Eicadius[94]
    2. Patarus[95]
  38. Manto
    1. Mopsus
  39. Marpessa
  40. Melia
    1. Ismenus[96]
    2. Tenerus[97]
  41. Othreis
    1. Phager
  42. Parnethia, nymph
    1. Cynnes[98]
  43. Parthenope
    1. Lycomedes
  44. Phthia
    1. Dorus
    2. Laodocus
    3. Polypoetes
  45. Prothoe[99]
  46. Procleia
    1. Tenes(possibly)
  47. Psamathe
    1. Linus, not the same as the singer Linus
  48. Rhoeo
    1. Anius
  49. Rhodoessa, nymph
    1. Ceos, eponym of the island Ceos[100]
  50. Rhodope
    1. Cicon, eponym of the tribe Cicones[101]
  51. Sinope
    1. Syrus
  52. Stilbe
    1. Centaurus
    2. Lapithes
    3. Aineus
  53. Syllis / Hyllis
    1. Zeuxippus
  54. Thaleia, Muse / Rhetia, nymph
    1. The Corybantes
  55. Themisto, daughter of Zabius of Hyperborea[102]
    1. Galeotes
    2. Telmessus (?)
  56. Thero
    1. Chaeron
  57. Urania, Muse
    1. Linus (possibly)
  58. Urea, daughter of Poseidon
    1. Ileus (Oileus?)
  59. Wife of Erginus
    1. Trophonius(possibly)
  60. Unknown consorts
    1. Acraepheus, eponym of the city Acraephia[103]
    2. Chariclo(possibly)[104]
    3. Erymanthus
    4. Marathus, eponym of Marathon[105]
    5. Megarus[106]
    6. Melaneus

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