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The First, Second, Fourth and SixthAmendments have been fully incorporated to the States via the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. The Fifth Amendment is almost fully incorporated; the Third and Eighth Amendments are partially incorporated; the Seventh Amendment is unincorporated; the Ninth and Tenth Amendments are not applicable.

First Amendment (incorporated)

  • Everson v. Board of Education, 330 US 1 (1947) clarified the Establishment Clause.
  • Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 US 296 (1940) held that the state couldn't impose restrictions on religious grounds.
  • Gitlow v. New York, 268 US 652 (1925) held that the Fourteenth Amendment required the States to adhere to the First Amendment.
  • Near v. Minnesota, 283 US 697 (1931) held that the Minnesota "gag law" violated freedom of the press.
  • De Jonge v. Oregon, 299 US 353 (1937) held that Oregon's criminal syndicalism law was unconstitutional.
  • NAACP v. Alabama, 357 US 449 (1958) Used Due Process Clause of Fourteenth Amendment to establish the right to expressive association, which is not specifically mentioned in the First Amendment.

Second Amendment (incorporated)

  • District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 US ___ (2008) determined District of Columbia handgun ban was a violation of respondent's Second Amendment right to own and bear arms.
  • McDonald v. City of Chicago, 561 US ___ (2010) held self-protection is a fundamental right and incorporated the Second Amendment to the states.

Third Amendment (not fully incorporated)

  • 2nd Circuit ruling in Engblom v. Carey upheld Third Amendment rights, but decision only applies to Connecticut, New York, and Vermont. Decision only has persuasive authority over remainder of states.

Fourth Amendment (incorporated)

  • Mapp v. Ohio, 367 US 643 (1961) protected individuals against unreasonable search and seizure.
  • Aguilar v. Texas, 378 US 108 (1964) explicated warrant requirements.

Fifth Amendment (partially incorporated)

  • Benton v. Maryland, 395 US 784 (1969) disallows trial for the same crime more than once.
  • Malloy v. Hogan, 378 US 1 (1964) upheld personal rights against self-incrimination.
  • Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad v. City of Chicago, 166 US 226 (1897) upheld Takings Clause, prohibiting exercising eminent domain without fair compensation.
  • Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436 (1966) The Miranda warning falls under the Fifth Amendment as a legal precaution, rather than a Constitutional mandate.

Sixth Amendment (incorporated)

  • Klopfer v. North Carolina, 386 US 213 (1967) upheld the right to a speedy trial.
  • In re Oliver, 333 US 257 (1948) upheld the right to a public trial.
  • Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 US 145 (1968) ruled that trial by jury does not extend to juveniles in state court.
  • In re Oliver, 333 US 257 (1948) upheld the right to notice of accusations.
  • Pointer v. Texas, 380 US 400 (1965) upheld right to confront adversary witnesses.
  • Washington v. Texas, 388 US 14 (1967) held subpoenas have to be issued for witness testimony.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 US 335 (1963) upheld right to assistance of counsel.

Seventh Amendment (not incorporated)

  • Right to jury trial in civil cases not imposed on states.

Eighth Amendment (partially incorporated)

  • Murphy v. Hunt, 455 US 478 (1982) petition for certiorari on case of excessive bail, dismissed as moot once defendant was sentenced. No other challenge.
  • Robinson v. California, 370 US 660 (1962) ruled that imprisonment for addiction (only) was cruel and unusual punishment.
  • Baze and Bowling v. Rees, 553 US ___ (2008) held that death by lethal injection did not constitute cruel and unusual punishment.

For more information, see Related Questions, below.

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Q: Which amendments have been applied to the states through selective incorporation?
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Continue Learning about American Government

Why is it selective incorporation good for the federal government?

The US Supreme Court's interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses permits them to apply the Bill of Rights to the states, through the process of selective incorporation. This allows federal legislation and US Supreme Court decisions to be applied uniformly, nationwide, as individual clauses in the Bill of Rights are determined to be applicable in order to ensure protection against unconstitutional state statutes and policies. In the past, certain constitutional protections could only be enforced against the federal government, but the states were free to ignore individual rights and pass excessively restrictive or discriminatory statutes with impunity.


How many amendments did the current constitution of Virginia have?

I tried counting when i looked through the document and found 44 amendments. Not sure if this is right. The amendments are found at the end of each section that has been amended. I just counted those.


Amendments Four through Eight deal with rights of?

The amendments deal with, in order:Search and seizureDue process of lawsRights of the accusedCivil trialsCruel and unusual punishment.


How many formal ammednets do we have today?

There are 27 amendments. All the amendments are neither formal or informal. If an amendment has not gone through the process laid out in the constitution it is not an amendment.


The founders created a constitution that could be adapted for the future through?

The founders allowed for amendments, and through the years, these have made some very important changes, including giving African-Americans and women the right to vote. There are currently 27 amendments to the constitution.

Related questions

Which amendment has allowed the supreme court to start forcing states to follow parts of the bill of rights?

The US Supreme Court has applied most of the first eight amendments in the Bill of Rights to the States through the doctrine of "selective incorporation" primarily via the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause.


What doctrie of rights did both the no incorporation justices and the plus incorportation justices use to expand the notion of legal rights?

The no incorporation justices argued that the Bill of Rights applied only to the federal government, not the states. The plus incorporation justices used the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to extend the Bill of Rights to the states, incorporating them through a process of selective or total incorporation.


Is a library covered under the Fourteenth Amendment?

In what way? A library is typically a government-owned entity, so the relevant portions of the Bill of Rights that have been applied to the state through "selective incorporation" also apply to any agent of the government (like a library and its employees).


What could the US Supreme Court have done with the incorporation doctrine?

Yes, the US Supreme Court has used selective incorporation to apply the Bill of Rights to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, as such application became relevant. The First, Second, Fourth and Sixth Amendments are fully incorporated; the Fifth is mostly incorporated; the Eighth is partially incorporated; the Third is incorporated only in the Second Circuit; the Seventh is currently unincorporated.If the Court didn't support incorporation the Bill of Rights would have become applicable to the states all at once, or not at all.For more information, see Related Questions, below.


Why is it selective incorporation good for the federal government?

The US Supreme Court's interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses permits them to apply the Bill of Rights to the states, through the process of selective incorporation. This allows federal legislation and US Supreme Court decisions to be applied uniformly, nationwide, as individual clauses in the Bill of Rights are determined to be applicable in order to ensure protection against unconstitutional state statutes and policies. In the past, certain constitutional protections could only be enforced against the federal government, but the states were free to ignore individual rights and pass excessively restrictive or discriminatory statutes with impunity.


What was the name given for the Amendments three through twelve?

They were named the " The 12 Amendments."


What is the impact of the incorporation of Bill of Rights?

most protections of the bill of rights applied to state governments


Which amendment lists almost all of your civil liberties?

The fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution lists almost all of the civil liberties provided to American citizens. These liberties were applied to every state government through the incorporation process.


The Thirteenth Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments are known as?

The thirteenth through fifteenth amendments are referred to as Reconstruction Amendments. These amendments came about after the Civil War. They were designed to help reconstruct the south after the war.


What amendments were part of the bill of rights?

Amendments 1 through 10 are known as the Bill of Rights.


Which amendments were added to the constitution to get the anti-federalists to approve it?

The Bill of Rights (amendments 1 through 10)


Which layer controls selective permeability?

The cell membrane controls selective permeability. Larger substances can enter the cell through endocytosis and exit through exocytosis.