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Demosthenes of Athens warned the Athenians. He was protecting Athenian interests and hegemony over Greece. Demosthenes harbored a personal grudge against Philip because of the humiliation he suffered when he lost his power of speech at the Macedonian court (Aischines, On the Embassy 35), Demosthenes called Philip a barbarian but he would call anyone he did not like a barbarian, including fellow Athenians (Dem. 21.150). Some propagandists have used this word to claim that Macedonian were not thought of as Greek by the rest of Greece but the word, at least in some uses by Demosthenes and others, should be understood as a generic insult. Thus, for example, in some parts of the USA people are dubious that people from other parts are "real Americans."

· [10] When, Athenians, will you take the necessary action? What are you waiting for? Until you are compelled, I presume. But what are we to think of what is happening now? For my own part I think that for a free people there can be no greater compulsion than shame for their position. Or tell me, are you content to run round and ask one another, "Is there any news today?" Could there be any news more startling than that a Macedonian is triumphing over Athenians and settling the destiny of Hellas? ~ Demosthenes. Demosthenes with an English translation by J. H. Vince, M.A. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1930. Demosthenes, after failing to convince that Macedonians were barbarians, in order to uprise Athenians and after the success of a united Greece under Macedonian hegemony said: "No king of the Hellenes had ever conquered Egypt with the exception only of Alexander, and that he did without war..."

"Even though Xerxes had a huge host with him, he was a barbarian and was defeated by the prudence of the Hellenes; whereas Alexander the Hellene (GREEK) has already engaged in 13 battles and has not been defeated once."

[2.3.4.-5; Oration of Demosthenes] When the battle of hegemony was fought it was the Athenians and their ally Greeks that met the Macedonians and their ally Greeks on the fields of Chaeronea. From this, the Pan-Hellenic league of Corinth was created with Macedonia as hegemon over the other states. The emiment historian J. B. Bury writes: As the hegemony or first place among Greek states had passed successively from Athens to Sparta, and to Thebes, so now it passed to Macedon. The statement that Greek liberty perished on the plain of Chaeronea is as true or as false as that it perished on the field of Leuctra or the strand of the Goat's River. Whenever a Greek state became supreme, that supremacy entailed the depression of some states and the dependency or subjection of others. Athens was reduced to a secondary place by Macedon, and Thebes fared still worse; but we must not forget what Sparta, in the day of her triumph, did to Athens, or the more evil things which Thebes proposed.

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9y ago

They had little choice - the Greek city-states were worn out by fighting amongst themselves and were in little shape to do anything about Macedonia expanding its territory to the east. When Philip II of Macedonia turned south their efforts to unite were too little too late.

And Philip was adept at bribing and exerting de factocontrol. He bribed several of the cities on the Greek Amphictyonic League to be his pawns and so had a proxy majority which bypassed the other cities.

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4y ago

because he had to protect them

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Q: Why did some Greeks ignore the rise of Macedonia and who tried to warn them?
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The Persia War did not straighten the Greeks. After a temporary coalition of the city-states saw off the Persian invasions, they went back to their usual wars between themselves, opening the way for the rise of Macedonia which brought the cities under control and 'straightened' them.

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Who warned the Greeks about the rise of Macedonia?

Demosthenes of Athens warned the Athenians not the other Greeks. He was protecting Athenian interests and their hegemony over Greece because Macedonia wanted to lead the Greeks. Demosthenes harbored a personal grudge against Philip because of the humiliation he suffered when he lost his power of speech at the Macedonian court (Aischines, On the Embassy 35), Demosthenes called Philip a barbarian but he would call anyone he did not like a barbarian to insult them, including fellow Athenians (Dem. 21.150) much like someone today being labelled as "un-American".

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